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VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 2 ( February, 2008 ) > List of Articles


Finishing Systems on the Final Surface Roughness of Composites

Richard Koh, Gisele Neiva, Joseph Dennison, Peter Yaman

Citation Information : Koh R, Neiva G, Dennison J, Yaman P. Finishing Systems on the Final Surface Roughness of Composites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008; 9 (2):138-145.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-9-2-138

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-07-2009

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; The Author(s).



This study evaluated differences in surface roughness of a microhybrid (Gradia™ Direct, GC America) and a nanofil (Filtek™ Supreme, 3M™ ESPE™) composite using four polishing systems: PoGo™/Enhance® (DENTSPLY/Caulk), Sof-Lex™ (3MTM ESPE™), Astropol® (Ivoclar Vivadent), and Optidisc™ (KerrHawe).

Methods and Materials

An aluminum mold was used to prepare 2 X 60 composite disks (10 mm X 2 mm). Composite was packed into the mold, placed between two glass slabs, and polymerized for 40 seconds from the top and bottom surfaces. Specimens were finished to a standard rough surface using Moore's disks with six brushing strokes. Specimens were rinsed and stored in artificial saliva in individual plastic bags at 36°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four polishing systems and were polished for 30 seconds (10 seconds per grit) with brushing strokes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Mean surface roughness (Ra) was recorded with a surface-analyzer 24 hours after storage in artificial saliva, both before and after polishing. Means were analyzed using two-way and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparison tests at p < 0.05.


There was a statistically significant difference for baseline measures between Filtek™ and Gradia™ (p=0.0338). For Filtek™, Sof-Lex™ provided a significantly smoother surface (Ra=0.80 ± 0.21) than Optidisc™ (Ra=0.93 ± 0.28), Astropol® (Ra=1.15 ± 0.24), and Pogo™/Enhance® (Ra=1.39 ± 0.39). For Gradia, Sof-Lex™ provided a significantly smoother surface (Ra=0.47 ± 0.09) and Astropol® provided a significantly rougher surface (Ra=1.39 ± 0.19) than Pogo™/Enhance® (Ra=1.11 ± 0.20) and Optidisc™ (Ra=1.15 ± 0.18). There was no significant difference in roughness between composites for individual polishing systems (p=0.3991).


Filtek™ specimens were smoother than Gradia™ specimens after baseline roughening. Sof- Lex™ provided the smoothest final surface when used with either composite. Astropol® provided a rough surface for Gradia™ specimens.


Koh R, Neiva G, Dennison J, Yaman P. Finishing Systems on the Final Surface Roughness of Composites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008 February;(9)2:138-145.

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