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VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Quantitative Evaluation of Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigants using Four Rotary Instrumentation Systems: An in vitro Study

P Ratnakar, S Aspalli Nagaveni, K Reddy Balakoti, Karan Smita, SV Satish, T Aravind

Citation Information : Ratnakar P, Nagaveni SA, Balakoti KR, Smita K, Satish S, Aravind T. Quantitative Evaluation of Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigants using Four Rotary Instrumentation Systems: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14 (6):1065-1069.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1452

Published Online: 01-04-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).


Clinical significance

The apical extrusion of infected debris may have the potential to disrupt the balance between microbial aggression and host defense, resulting in incidents of acute inflammation. During preparation, irrigants and debris, such as bacteria, dentin filings and necrotic tissue may be extruded into the periradicular region leading to periapical inflammation and postoperative flare ups. Using an instrumentation technique that minimizes apical extrusion would be beneficial to both the practitioner and patient.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using four different rotary root canal instrumentation systems.

Materials and methods

Four groups of each 20 extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using one of the four systems: ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland)), Hero-shaper (MicroMega, Besancon, France), RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and K3 (SybronEndo, West Collins, CA). Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected in preweighed test tubes. Volume of irrigant extruded was noted. The containers were stored in incubator at 70° for two days to evaporate the moisture. Weight of dry debris was noted.

Statistical analysis

Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance of 0.001.


The results indicated that all of the instrumentation systems tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris and irrigants. Higher extrusion was observed with Protaper system which was statistically significant with Hero-Shaper, RaCe and K3 systems. There were no statistical differences between Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems (p < 0.05).


All instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and irrigant. However, Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems produced less extruded debris and irrigant than the Protaper system.

How to cite this article

Nagaveni SA, Balakoti KR, Smita K, Ratnakar P, Satish SV, Aravind T. Quantitative Evaluation of Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigants using Four Rotary Instrumentation Systems: A in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(6):1065-1069.

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