The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2015 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Peri-implantitis: A Concept Review

Lelis Gustavo Nicoli, Elcio Marcantonio Junior, Daniela Leal Zandim-Barcelos

Citation Information : Nicoli LG, Junior EM, Zandim-Barcelos DL. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Peri-implantitis: A Concept Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015; 16 (9):750-757.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1752

Published Online: 01-09-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of peri-implantitis, as well as to determine possible risk factors associated with its development in patients treated with oral implants.

Background

Although implant therapy has been identified as a successful and predictable treatment for partially and fully edentulous patients, complications and failures can occur. Periimplantitis is considered a biologic complication that results in bone loss around implants and may lead to implant treatment failure.

Results

A great variation has been observed in the literature regarding the prevalence of peri-implantitis according to the diagnostic criteria used to define peri-implantitis. The prevalence ranges from 4.7 to 43% at implant level, and from 8.9 to. ≥56% at patient level. Many risk factors that may lead to the establishment and progression of peri-implantitis have been suggested. There is strong evidence that presence and history of periodontitis are potential risk factors for peri-implantitis. Cigarette smoking has not yet been conclusively established as a risk factor for peri-implantitis, although extra care should be taken with dental implant in smokers. Other risk factors, such as diabetes, genetic traits, implant surface roughness and presence of keratinized mucosa still require further investigation.

Conclusion

Peri-implantitis is not an uncommon complication following implant therapy. A higher prevalence of peri-implantitis has been identified for patients with presence or history of periodontal disease and for smokers. Until now, a true risk factor for peri-implantitis has not been established. Supportive maintenance program is essential for the long-term success of treatments with oral implants.

Clinical significance

The knowledge of the real impact of peri-implantitis on the outcome of treatments with oral implants as well as the identification of risk factors associated to this inflammatory condition are essential for the development of supportive maintenance programs and the establishment of prevention protocols.

How to cite this article

Marcantonio C, Nicoli LG, Junior EM, Zandim-Barcelos DL. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Peri-implantitis: A Concept Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):750-757.


PDF Share
  1. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg 1981;10:387-416.
  2. Clinical research of peri-implant diseases— quality of reporting, case definitions and methods to study incidence, prevalence and risk factors of peri-implant diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:207-223.
  3. On crestal/marginal bone loss around dental implants. Int J Prosthodont 2012;25:320-322.
  4. J Periodontol 2013;84:436-443.
  5. Prevalence and risk variables for peri-implant disease in Brazilian subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:929-935.
  6. 9- to 14-year follow-up of implant treatment. Part II: Presence of peri-implant lesions. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:290-295.
  7. Definition and prevalence of peri-implant diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:286-291.
  8. Prevalence of periimplantitis related to severity of the disease with different degrees of bone loss. J Periodontol 2010;81:231-238.
  9. Prevalence of peri-implant diseases. A cross-sectional study based on a private practice environment. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:490-494.
  10. The frequency of peri-implant diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol 2013;84:1586-1598.
  11. Peri-implant diseases: diagnosis and risk indicators. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:292-304.
  12. Peri-implant diseases: Consensus Report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:282-285.
  13. The epidemiology of periimplantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012;23:67-76.
  14. Long-term implant prognosis in patients with and without a history of chronic periodontitis: a 10-year prospective cohort study of the ITI Dental Implant System. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003;14:329-339.
  15. Periodontitis as a potencial risk factor for peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36(Suppl 10):9-14.
  16. Long-term implant survival and success: a 10-16-year follow-up of nonsubmerged dental implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21:772-777.
  17. Peri-implantitis susceptibility as it relates to periodontal therapy and supportive care. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012;23:888-894.
  18. Peri-implant disease in subjects with and without preventive maintenance: a 5-year follow-up. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:173-181.
  19. Mucositis, peri-implantitis, implant success, and survival of implants in patients with treated generalized aggressive periodontitis: 3- to 16-year results of a prospective long-term cohort study. J Periodontol 2012;83:1213-1225.
  20. History of treated periodontitis and smoking as risks for implant therapy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2009;24:39-68.
  21. Prevalence of periimplant disease in partially edentulous patients: a practice-based cross-sectional study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:826-833.
  22. The association between selected risk indicators and severity of peri-implantitis using mixed model analyses. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:285-292.
  23. Factors related to peri-implantitis—a retrospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2014;25:522-529.
  24. Smoking and the risk of peri-implantitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2015;26:e62-e67.
  25. A comprehensive and critical review of dental implant placement in diabetic animals and patients. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17:587-599.
  26. Dental implant failure rates and associated risk factors. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:569-577.
  27. Effects of diabetes mellitus on periodontal and peri-implant conditions: update on associations and risks. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35(Suppl):398-409.
  28. Smoking interferes with the prognosis of dental implant treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol 2007;34:523-544.
  29. A systematic review on the association between genetic predisposition and dental implant biological complications. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012;23:775-788.
  30. Five-year evaluation of the influence of keratinized mucosa on peri-implant soft-tissue health and stability around implants supporting full-arch mandibular fixed prostheses. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20:1170-1177.
  31. The effect of keratinized mucosa width on peri-implant outcome under supportive postimplant therapy. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2015;17(Suppl 1):e236-e244.
  32. Is there a need for keratinized mucosa around implants to maintain health and tissue stability? Clin Oral Implants Res 2012;23(Suppl 6):136-146.
  33. The effect of keratinized mucosa width on peri-implant health: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:1536-1545.
  34. A prospective, multicenter, randomizedcontrolled 5-year study of hybrid and fully etched implants for the incidence of peri-implantitis. J Periodontol 2010;81:493-501.
  35. 10-year survival and success rates of 511 titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface: a retrospective study in 303 partially edentulous patients. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012;14:839-851.
  36. How do implant surface characteristics influence peri-implant disease? J Clin Periodontol 2011;38(Suppl 11):214-222.
  37. Periimplant diseases: where are we now?—Consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:178-181.
  38. Diagnostic parameters for monitoring peri-implant conditions. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004;19(Suppl):116-127.
  39. Factors affecting soft tissue level around anterior maxillary single-tooth implants. Clin Oral Impl Res 2010;21:662-670.
  40. Facial gingival tissue stability following immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implants: a 2- to 8-year follow-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:179-187.
  41. Clinical and esthetic outcomes of implants placed in postextraction sites. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2009;24(Suppl):186-217.
  42. Supportive periodontal therapy and periodontal biotype as prognostic factors in implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2013; 18:e786-792.
  43. Polyspecies biofilm formation on implant surfaces with different surface characteristics. J Appl Oral Sci 2013;21:48-55.
  44. Spontaneous progression of experimental peri-implantitis at implants with different surface characteristics: an experimental study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:182-187.
  45. Clinical research in implant dentistry: study design, reporting and outcome measurements: consensus report of Working Group 2 of the VIII European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39(Suppl 12):73-80.
  46. Kaplan-Meier analysis of dental implant survival: A strategy for estimating survival with clustered observations. J Dent Res 2001;80:2016-2020.
  47. Prevalence of subjects with progressive bone loss at implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2005;16:440-446.
  48. Periimplant diseases: treatment and management. Int J Contemp Dent Med Rev 2015;2015, Article ID: 070215.
  49. The influence of flap design and technique on dental implant success, prognosis and morbidity: Mini review.’ Int J Contemp Dent Med Rev 2015;2015, Article ID: 161214.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.