The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 19 , ISSUE 10 ( 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Estrogenicity of Vivera® Retainers

Shaima R Al Naqbi, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas, Theodore Eliades, Athanasios E Athanasiou

Keywords : Cytotoxicity, Estrogenicity, Laboratory research Vivera® retainers

Citation Information : Naqbi SR, Pratsinis H, Kletsas D, Eliades T, Athanasiou AE. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Estrogenicity of Vivera® Retainers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (10):1163-1168.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2400

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-10-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To investigate the cytotoxicity and estrogenicity of Vivera® retainers by assessing their biological behavioral effects as-received from the manufacturer and after retrieved from patients. Materials and methods: In this, in vitro investigation six sets (maxillary and mandibular) of Vivera® retainers, three as received and three retrieved after four weeks of use by patients of an orthodontic postgraduate clinic, were immersed in the normal saline solution for 14 days following different modes of sterilization. The estrogenicity assays involved two cell lines, namely the estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 and the estrogeninsensitive MDA-MB-231. Following a 6 day incubation with the solutions to be tested, at concentrations varying from 5% to 20% v/v in medium supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum devoid of endogenous estrogens, estrogenicity was assessed by cell counting; β-Estradiol was used as positive control. The statistical analysis of data was performed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with appliance and concentration as predictors. Differences were further investigated with the Tukey multiple comparison tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: No significant MCF-7 proliferation was induced by the three samples compared either to the eluents from as-received retainers or to the negative control. As expected, β-estradiol induced a potent stimulation of MCF-7 cell proliferation, while no effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this experiment eluents of as-received and retrieved Vivera® retainers did not seem to exhibit xenoestrogenic activity. Clinical significance: Vivera® retainers can be used as parttime removable oral appliances following the manufacturer\'s instructions.


PDF Share
  1. Bondemark L, Holm A, Hansen K, Axelsson S, Mohlin B, Brattstrom V, et al. Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment and patient satisfaction. A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2007 Jan;77(1):181-191.
  2. Thilander B. Dentoalveolar development in subjects with normal occlusion. A longitudinal study between the ages of 5 and 31 years. Eur J Orthod. 2009 Apr;31(2):109-120.
  3. Invisalign. Vivera® retainers [Internet]. 2018 June 30. Available from: https://www.invisalign.com/how-invisalignworks/ vivera-retainers
  4. Eliades T, Pratsinis H, Athanasiou AE, Eliades G, Kletsas D. Cytotoxicity and estrogenicity of Invisalign appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009 Jul;136(1):100-103.
  5. Schuster S, Eliades G, Zinelis S, Eliades T, Bradley TG. Structural conformation and leaching from in vitro aged and retrieved Invisalign appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Dec;126(6):725-728.
  6. Sifakakis I, Zinelis S, Eliades T. Aligners for orthodontic applications. In: Eliades T, Brantley WA, editors. Orthodontic applications of biomaterials. A clinical guide. Cambridge, MA: Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier; 2017;p. 276-285.
  7. Bradley TG, Teske L, Eliades G, Zinelis S, Eliades T. Do the mechanical and chemical properties of Invisalign appliances change after use? A retrieval analysis. Eur J Orthod. 2016 Feb;38(1):27-31.
  8. Kotyk MW, Wiltshire WA. An investigation into bisphenol- A leaching from orthodontic materials. Angle Orthod. 2014 May;84(3):516-520.
  9. Premaraj T, Simet S, Beatty M, Premaraj S. Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2014 Jan;145(1):64-71.
  10. Quesada I, Fuentes E, Viso-León MC, Soria B, Ripoll C, Nadal A. Low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A and the native hormone 17beta-estradiol rapidly activate transcription factor CREB. FASEB J. 2002 Oct;16(12):1671-1673.
  11. Azarpazhooh A, Main PA. Pit and fissure sealants in the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review. J Can Dent Assoc. 2008 Mar;74(2): 171-177.
  12. Zampeli D, Papagiannoulis L, Eliades G, Pratsinis H, Kletsas D, Eliades T. In vitro estrogenicity of dental resin sealants. Pediatric Dent. 2012 Jul-Aug;34(4):312-316.
  13. Prokop Z, Hankova L, Jerabek K. Bisphenol A synthesis – modeling of industrial reactor and catalyst deactivation. React Funct Polym. 2004 Jun;60(6):77-83.
  14. Staples CA, Dorn PB, Klecka GM, O'Block ST, Harris LR. A review of the environmental fate, effects and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere. 1998 Apr;36(10):2149-2173.
  15. Fleisch AF, Sheffield PE, Chinn C, Edelstein BL, Landrigan PJ. Bisphenol-A and related compounds in dental materials. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):760-768.
  16. Richter CA, Birnbaum LS, Farabollini F, Newbold RR, Rubin BS, Talsness CE, et al. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Aug- Sep;24(2):199–224.
  17. Alonso-Magdalena P, Ropero AB, Soriano S, Quesada I, Nadal A. Bisphenol-A: a new diabetogenic factor? Hormones (Athens). 2010 Apr-Jun;9(2):118-126.
  18. vom Saal FS, Hughes C. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):926-933.
  19. Welshons WV, Nagel SC, vom Saal FS. Large effects from small exposures. III. Endocrine mechanisms mediating effects of bisphenol A at levels of human exposure. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S56-S69.
  20. Sekizawa J. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A: a serious threat to human health? J Toxicol Sci. 2008 Oct;33(4):389-403.
  21. Bouskine A, Nebout M, Brücker-Davis F, Benahmed M, Fenichel P. Low doses of bisphenol-A promote human seminoma cell proliferation by activating PKA and PKG via a membrane G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jul;117(7):1053-1058.
  22. Raghavan AS, Pottipalli Sathyanarayana H, Kailasam V, Padmanabhan S. Comparative evaluation of salivary bisphenol A levels in patients wearing vacuum-formed and Hawley retainers: An in-vivo study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017 Mar;151(3):471-476.
  23. Eliades T. Bisphenol A and orthodontics: An update of evidence-based measures to minimize exposure for the orthodontic team and patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017 Oct;152(4):435-41. Erratum in: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017 Dec;152(6):740.
  24. Eliades T, Eliades G, Silikas N, Watts DC. In vitro degradation of polyurethane orthodontic elastomeric modules. J Oral Rehab. 2005 Jan;32(1):72-77.
  25. Soto AM, Murai JT, Siiteri PK, Sonnenschein C. Control of cell proliferation: Evidence for negative control on estrogensensitive T47D human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1986 May;46(5):2271-2275.
  26. Welshons WV, Thayer KA, Judy BM, Taylor JA, Curran EM, vom Saal FS. Large effects from small exposures. I. Mechanisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jun;111(8):994-1006.
  27. Kloukos D, Sifakakis I, Voutsa D, Doulis D, Eliades G, Katsaros C, et al. BPA qualitative and quantitative assessment associated with orthodontic bonding in vivo. Dent Mater. 2015 Aug;31(8):887-894.
  28. Fung EY, Ewoldsen NO, St Germain HA Jr, Marx DB, Miaw CL, Siew C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A released from a dental sealant. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000 Jan;131(1):51-58.
  29. Pratsinis H, Mavrogonatou E, Papadopoulou A, Kletsas D. In vitro assessment of biocompatibility for orthodontic materials. In: Eliades T, editor. Research methods in orthodontics. Heidelberg: Springer 2013;p. 61-78.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.