Salivary Bacterial Count and its Implications on the Prevalence of Oral Conditions
Elijah Olufemi Oyetola, Omotoyosi O Awosusi, Ekhosueh T Agho, Mohammed AS Abdullahi, Ibrahim K Suleiman, Sola Egunjobi
Bacterial count, Periodontitis, Saliva
Citation Information :
Oyetola EO, Awosusi OO, Agho ET, Abdullahi MA, Suleiman IK, Egunjobi S. Salivary Bacterial Count and its Implications on the Prevalence of Oral Conditions. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (2):184-189.
Aim: To determine the relationship between salivary bacterial count and some oral lesions.
Materials and methods: This research was designed as a crosssectional study assessing the mean bacterial count in the saliva of Nigerians in Ile-Ife who has no history of medical illness. Subjects were randomly selected from consenting staffs and students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Oral examinations were done and their saliva collected using spitting method. The bacterial count was determined in the laboratory by culture the bacteria after which the counting was done using colony counter. Data analysis was done using STATA 13 software.
Results: A total of sixty participants were recruited for the study, 41 males and 19 females, their mean age was 23.12+3.8 years. The mean salivary bacteria count among the participants was 8.41 x 108 + 1.06x 109 per mL. The salivary bacterial count is highest among those with poor oral hygiene (1.89 x 109) and also increases with age. Males have a higher bacterial load compared to female. Subjects with periodontitis have the highest bacterial load and are significantly higher in patients with periodontitis in comparison with those who do not have periodontitis p = 0.03
Conclusion: Periodontitis is associated with the significantly higher salivary bacterial load. Male sex and increasing age were also associated with increased bacterial load in saliva.
Clinical significance: This study showed another potential role of saliva as a reliable diagnostic tool to monitor the severity of oral infections. It also showed the association between salivary bacterial count and some oral lesions further substantiating the possibility of using saliva to monitor disease progression and treatment responses.
Ahmadi MF, Davoodi P, Dalband M, Hendi S. Saliva as a Mirror of the Body Health. DJH. 2010;1(2):1-15.
Humphrey S, Williamson R. A review of saliva: Normal composition, flow, and function. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 2001;85(2):162-169.
Chiappin S, Antonelli G, Gatti R, Elio FDP. Saliva specimen: A new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2007;383:30-40.
Richard P, Jiri S, Jana V, Edgar F, Petr M, Jindrich P. Saliva as a diagnostic medium. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2009;153(2):103-110.
Miyazaki H. Oral malodour. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134(2): 209-214.
Benamghar L, Penaud J, Kaminsky P, Abt F, Martin L. Comparism of gingival index and sulcus bleeding index as indicator of periodontal status. Bulletin of the world Health Organisation. 1982;60(1):147-151.
Armitage G. Diagnosis of periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2004;74(8):1237-1247.
Bergström J, Eliasson S. Prevalence of chronic periodontal disease using probing depth as a diagnostic test. J Clin Periodontol. 1989;16(9):588-592.
Zijnge V, van Leeuwen MB, Degener JE, Abbas F, Thurnheer T, Gmur R, et al. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth. PloS one. 2010;5(2):e9321.
Tettamanti L, Gaudio RM, Cura F, Mucchi D, Illuzzi N, Tagliabue A. Prevalence of periodontal pathogens among italian patients with chronic periodontitis: a retrospective study on 2992 patients. ORAL & implantology. 2017;10(1): 28-36.
Holmlund A, Holm G, Lind L. Severity of periodontal disease and number of remaining teeth are related to the prevalence of myocardial infarction and hypertension in a study based on 4,254 subjects. J Periodontol. 2006;77(7):1173-1178.
Balejo RDP, Cortelli JR, Costa FO, Cyrino RM, Aquino DR, Cogo-Muller K, et al. Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB. 2017;25(6):586-595.
Mantilla Gomez S, Danser MM, Sipos PM, Rowshani B, van der Velden U, van der Weijden GA. Tongue coating and salivary bacterial counts in healthy/gingivitis subjects and periodontitis patients. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2001;28(10):970-978.
Xiaojing L, Kristin M, Kolltveit, Leif T, Ingar O. Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection. Clininical Microbiology Review. 2000;13(4): Oct PMC8894.
Zingler S, Pritsch M, Lux CJ, Kneist S. Association between clinical and salivary microbial parameters during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances with or without use of fluoride mouth rinse. European journal of paediatric dentistry : official journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 2016;17(3):181-187.
D'Ercole S, Tieri M, Fulco D, Martinelli D, Tripodi D. The use of chlorhexidine in mouthguards. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. 2017;31(2):487-493.
Ferraro M, Vieira AR. Explaining gender differences in caries: a multifactorial approach to a multifactorial disease. International journal of dentistry. 2010;2010:649643.
Kudirkaite I, Lopatiene K, Zubiene J, Saldunaite K. Age and gender influence on oral hygiene among adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. Stomatologija. 2016;18(2):61-65.
Kononen E. Development of oral bacterial flora in young children. Annals of medicine. 2000;32(2):107-112.
Preshaw PM, Henne K, Taylor JJ, Valentine RA, Conrads G. Age-related changes in immune function (immune senescence) in caries and periodontal diseases: a systematic review. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2017;44 Suppl 18:S153-S77.
Umoh A, Azodo C. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of medical and health sciences research. 2013;3(2):149-154.
Petrušiæ N, Posavac M, Sabol I, Mravak-Stipetiæ M. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Salivation. Acta Stomatologica Croatica. 2015;49(4):309-315.