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VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2020 ) > List of Articles


Does Etching of the Enamel with the Rubbing Technique Promote the Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive System?

Naji Kharouf, Davide Mancino, Gautier Rapp, Jihed Zghal, Youri Arntz, Youssef Haikel, François Reitzer

Keywords : Etching, Phosphoric acid, Rubbing technique, Universal adhesive

Citation Information : Kharouf N, Mancino D, Rapp G, Zghal J, Arntz Y, Haikel Y, Reitzer F. Does Etching of the Enamel with the Rubbing Technique Promote the Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive System?. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (10):1117-1121.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2962

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 08-01-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of this in vitro research was to study the effect of etching by phosphoric acid with rubbing technique on the shear bond strength (SBS) of adhesive universal to enamel. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted teeth were obtained. Three application methods (self-etch, etch-and-rinse, and etch-and-rinse with rubbing technique) were performed to bond the enamel surfaces by a universal adhesive. After 24 hours of immersion in water at 37°C, the specimens were prepared for the SBS test. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe the adhesive–enamel interfaces. Optical numeric microscope was used to observe the failure style. Statistical analyses were done with one-way analysis of variance test. Results: Statistically significant higher bond strength values were observed for etch-and-rinse mode with rubbing technique (25.98 ± 5.70) MPa then for the etch-and-rinse without rubbing (22.07 ± 5.27) MPa and self-etch modes (9.96 ± 2.98) MPa. Conclusion: Enamel etched by 37% phosphoric acid with rubbing technique for 20 seconds showed an increase in the SBS of the universal adhesive to enamel surfaces. The tags of the adhesive can be presented more efficiently by rubbing the acid before the bonding process, consequently, an optimal interface for the bonding. Clinical significance: According to the results of this in vitro study, the selective enamel etching mode with rubbing technique is advisable when using the universal adhesive, as it significantly increased the bond strength of this adhesive to enamel surfaces. The clinician should etch the enamel using phosphoric acid with rubbing technique for 20 seconds to promote the bond strength of the universal adhesive system.

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