Do the Renal Function Parameters of Serum and Salivary Urea and Creatinine Alter in Smokeless Tobacco Chewers? A Case–Control Study
Suman Basavarajappa, Shahira
Citation Information :
Basavarajappa S, S. Do the Renal Function Parameters of Serum and Salivary Urea and Creatinine Alter in Smokeless Tobacco Chewers? A Case–Control Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (11):1222-1228.
Aim: To evaluate and correlate the salivary urea and creatinine levels to the serum levels in smokeless tobacco (SLT) chewers. Materials and methods: The present study included 60 subjects, 30 SLT chewers, and 30 controls aged between 20 years and 60 years. Serum and salivary urea and creatinine levels were estimated using Berthelot-urease method enzymatic colorimetric method and modified Jaffe's method, respectively. Results: The mean salivary urea, mean serum, and salivary creatinine levels were higher in SLT chewers (33.77 ± 15.04, 0.76 ± 0.17, and 0.17 ± 0.07 mg/dL, respectively) than controls (32.3 ± 14.73, 0.67 ± 0.15, and 0.13 ± 0.05 mg/dL, respectively). Although serum and salivary urea showed a strongly positive correlation (r = 0.654, p < 0.001**) among SLT chewers and controls, no correlation was noted for serum and salivary creatinine (r = 0.098, p = 0.606). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis revealed better sensitivity and specificity of serum and salivary creatinine than for urea among both SLT chewers and controls. Conclusion: Salivary urea, serum, and salivary creatinine levels were higher among SLT chewers than controls showing that SLT can be nephrotoxic. Clinical significance: Smokeless tobacco chewers can be assessed for early renal damage caused by the tobacco products using salivary parameters of urea and creatinine so that they can be counseled for the risk of renal diseases and referred appropriately.
Assessment of renal damage using selected biochemical markers in smokeless tobacco users. Eur J Biol Sci 2012;4(4):121–125.
The effect of smoking cigarette on kidney functions among sundaes peoples. Int J Dev Res 2015;5(5):4473–4475.
Association between betelnut chewing and chronic kidney disease in adults. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2007;49(7):776–779. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318095a48a.
Association between betel-nut chewing and chronic kidney disease in men. Public Health Nutr 2009;12(5):723–727. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980008003339.
Tobacco chewing and smoking-risk for renal diseases. Biomed Res 2016;27(3):682–686.
Salivary creatinine and urea analysis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a case control study. BMC Nephrol 2016;17(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1186/s12882-016-0222-x.
Utility of saliva as a sample to assess renal function and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27(2):312–319. DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.178549.
Automated and manual direct methods for the determination of blood urea. Clin Chem 1965;11(6):624–627. DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/11.6.624.
Correlation of salivary urea and salivary creatinine with blood urea and serum creatinine in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2018;1A(4):2896–2900.
BUN and creatinine. Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, ed. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations, ch. 193 3rd ed., Butterworths; 1990.
Urea and creatinine levels in saliva of patients with and without periodontitis. Eur J Oral Sci 2019;127(5):417–424. DOI: 10.1111/eos.12642.
Salivary urea nitrogen as an index to renal function: a test-strip method. Clin Chem 1983;29(10):1825–1827. DOI: 10.1093/clinchem/29.10.1825.
Human parotid saliva urea in renal failure and during dialysis. Arch Oral Biol 1977;22(2):83–86. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(77)90082-6.
Liver and kidney toxicity induced by Afzal smokeless tobacco product in Oman. Tissue and Cell 2017;49(2):307–314. DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2017.01.008.
Smokeless tobacco impairs the antioxidant defense in liver, lung, and kidney of rats. Toxicol Sci 2006;89(2):547–553. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfj041.
Assessment and correlation of urea and creatinine levels in saliva and serum of patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes and hypertension–a research study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(10):ZC58–ZC62. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/20294.8651.
Salivary creatinine assays as a potential screen for renal disease. Ann Clin Biochem 1996;33(5):428–431. DOI: 10.1177/000456329603300505.
Can salivary creatinine and urea levels be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in children as accurately as serum creatinine and urea levels? A case–control study. Ren Fail 2017;39(1):452–457. DOI: 10.1080/0886022X.2017.1308256.
Salivary creatinine as a diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol 2019;20(1):387. DOI: 10.1186/s12882-019-1546-0.
Influencing factors for saliva urea and its application in chronic kidney disease. Clin Biochem 2013;46(3):275–277. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.10.029.
Salivary creatinine estimation as an alternative to serum creatinine in chronic kidney disease patients. Int J Nephrol 2014;2014:742724. DOI: 10.1155/2014/742724.
Studies of parotid saliva and blood in haemodialysis patients. J Appl Phys 1967;23(1):100–108. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.199.
Salivary creatinine and urea are higher in an experimental model of acute but not chronic renal disease. PLoS ONE 2018;13(7):e0200391. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200391.
Toxicological features of Catha edulis (Khat) on livers and kidneys of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats: a subchronic study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:1–11. DOI: 10.1155/2012/829401.
Validation of the salivary urea and creatinine tests as screening methods of chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese patients. Acta Odontol Scand 2017;75(8):551–556. DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2017.1356467.
Biomarkers of acute renal injury and renal failure. Shock 2006;26(3):245–253. DOI: 10.1097/01.shk.0000225415.5969694.ce.
Salivary cystatin C as a biochemical marker for chronic renal failure. Eurasian J Anal Chem 2018;13(5):1–8. DOI: 10.29333/ejac/95168.
BPI fold-containing family a member 2/parotid secretory protein is an early biomarker of AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol 2017;28(12):3473–3478. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2016121265.