Citation Information :
Jumaymi AK, Faqehi WH, Hamdi SA, Jarab MB, Essa AA, Abdulfattah MA, Qassadi TM, Alnami RH. Level of Dental Anxiety and Its Relation to Khat Chewing in Jazan Population: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (3):253-260.
Aim: To investigate and compare the levels of dental anxiety (DA) in relation to khat and non-khat chewer subjects of both genders from Jazan subpopulation, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess DA using the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS). A total of 352 subjects from the city of Jazan who attended dental clinics for regular treatment were recruited for this study. A questionnaire was used to collect the required information, which consisted of three parts. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and percentages were calculated. Multiple group comparisons were analyzed using Chi-square tests using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program. p < 0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: Among the participants, 75.6% was male, while 71.3% khat chewers, and most of them were male (91.2%). The percentage of the overall mean of MDAS was low; 40% to moderate; 38%, while sever anxiety were present in 4% only. Anxiety related to endodontic treatments represents 33.8% in both genders and 34.3% among the khat chewers, while fear was 42.1% among males and 45.4% among khat chewers. The local anesthesia injection in the gum and tooth drilling items of MDAS were represented by 36.6% for both khat and gender groups and resulted in a fairly and extremely anxious situation during dental treatments. All variables were significantly different. Conclusion: The overall DA level was low to moderate among the majority of the assessed subjects. Endodontic treatments were the first type of dental treatments for the subjects, while fear of pain was the most common cause of irregular dental visits. Significant differences were detected between khat and non-khat chewers and between genders in relation to anesthesia injection, and drilling of teeth in the MDAS items. Clinical significance: Community programs focusing on the high DA levels caused by khat chewing might be important in order to minimize the fear of dental treatments and improve and regularize the overall dental treatments.
Freeman R. The psychology of dental patient care: Barriers to accessing and accepting dental care. Br Dent J 1999;187(2):81–84. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4800208.
Armfield JM. How do we measure dental fear and what are we measuring anyway? Oral Health Prev Dent 2010;8(2):107–115.
Cappelli DP, Mobley CC. Prevention in Clinical Oral Health Care-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2007.
Alalwan SAM, Albader FNB, Alkhalaf ZAH, et al. Dental anxiety among patients undergoing different dental treatments in College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University. Saudi J Oral Dent Res 2018;3(12): 379–385. DOI: 10.21276/sjodr.2018.3.12.2.
Al-Khalifa KS. Prevalence of dental anxiety in two major cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Med Med Sci 2015;3(2):135–140. DOI: 10.4103/1658-631X.156421.
Allam R, Allam Y, Al-Samhan A, et al. Gender differences in anxiety levels about dentistry in Saudi dental college students. EC Dent Sci 2018;17(6):663–667.
Al-Towayan A, Osman KH. Prevalence of dental anxiety among medical and dental undergraduates in Gassim University. Prevalence 2018;4(3):15–18.
Duko B, Gebeyehu A, Ayano G. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with tuberculosis at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, cross sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 2015;15(1):214. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0598-3.
Gaffar BO, Alagl AS, Al-Ansari AA. The prevalence, causes, and relativity of dental anxiety in adult patients to irregular dental visits. Saudi Med J 2014;35(6):598–603.
Sghaireen MG, Zwiri A, Alzoubi IA, et al. Anxiety due to dental treatment and procedures among university students and its correlation with their gender and field of study. Int J Dent 2013;2013:647436. DOI: 10.1155/2013/647436.
Alafaleg R, Buraidah Q. Prevalence of dental anxiety among Saudi population in Buraiydah. Dent Studs’ Res 2014;1:24–32
Alatram A. Assessment of pre and post dental treatment anxiety among Saudi Arabian population. Majmaah J Health Sci 2014;216(1217):1–10. DOI: 10.12816/0004780.
Al-Dosari A. Dental fear among visitors of primary health care centers in Saudi Arabia. Trop Dent J 1996;11:9.
Caltabiano ML, Croker F, Page L, et al. Dental anxiety in patients attending a student dental clinic. BMC Oral Health 2018;18(1):48. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-018-0507-5.
Fayad MI, Elbieh A, Baig MN, et al. Prevalence of dental anxiety among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2017;7(2):100–104. DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_19_17.
Suhani RD, Suhani MF, Badea ME. Dental anxiety and fear among a young population with hearing impairment. Clujul Med 2016;89(1):143–149. DOI: 10.15386/cjmed-556.
Al Bahhawi T, Albasheer OB, Makeen AM, et al. Depression, anxiety, and stress and their association with khat use: a cross-sectional study among Jazan University students, saudi arabia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018;14:2755–2761. DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S182744.
Hakami RM, Mahfouz MS, Adawi AM, et al. Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. Ment Illn 2017;9(2):7274. DOI: 10.4081/mi.2017.7274.
Almalik M, Alnowaiser A, El Meligy O, et al. Clinical anxiety among Saudi postgraduate pediatric dentistry students in Jeddah City. Int J Dent 2018;2018:5863869. DOI: 10.1155/2018/5863869.
Ibrahim NK, Al-Jdani M, Al-Aamoudi N, et al. Anxiety due to dental procedures and treatment among adult patients attending outpatient clinics in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Med Res 2016;2(2):35–40.
Inamdar A, Alwadaani M, Asiri A, et al. Dental anxiety in medical and dental undergraduates at Jazan University. J Oral Health Res 2014;4(3):25–30.
Alaki S, Alotaibi A, Almabadi E, et al. Dental anxiety in middle school children and their caregivers: prevalence and severity. J Dent Oral Hyg 2012;4(1):6–11. DOI: 10.5897/JDOH11.019.
Al-Sowygh ZH, Alfadley AA, Al-Saif MI, et al. Perceived causes of stress among Saudi dental students. King Saud Univ J Dent Sci 2013;4(1):7–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ksujds.2012.11.002.
Dailey YM, Humphris GM, Lennon MA. The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners. Br Dent J 2001;190(8):450–453. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4801000.
Coolidge T, Arapostathis KN, Emmanouil D, et al. Psychometric properties of greek versions of the modified corah dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and the dental fear survey (DFS). BMC Oral Health 2008;8(1):29. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-8-29.
Humphris G, Freeman R, Campbell J, et al. Further evidence for the reliability and validity of the modified dental anxiety scale. Int Dent J 2000;50(6):367–370. DOI: 10.1111/j.1875-595x.2000.tb00570.x.
Al-Alimi KR, Razak AAA, Saub R. Is Khat chewing habit a risk factor for occlusal caries progression? Afr Health Sci 2018;18(4):1036–1045. DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v18i4.25.
Yeshaw Y, Mossie A. Depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among Jimma University staff, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016: a cross-sectional study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017;13:2803–2812. DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S150444.
Odenwald M, Neuner F, Schauer M, et al. Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: a cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia. BMC Med 2005;3:5. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-3-5.
Patel SL. Attitudes to khat use within the Somali community in England. Drugs Educ Prev Policy 2008;15(1):37–53. DOI: 10.1080/09687630601138691.
do Nascimento DL, da Silva Araújo AC, Gusmão ES, et al. Anxiety and fear of dental treatment among users of public health services. Oral Health Prev Dent 2011;9(4):329–337.
Al Moaleem MM, Porwal A, Al Ahmari NM, et al. Khat chewing induces a floral shift in dental naterial-associated microbiota: a preliminary study. Med Sci Monit 2020;26:e918219. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.918219.
Al Jasser RA, Almashaan G, Alwaalan H, et al. Dental anxiety among dental, medical, and nursing students of two major universities in the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2019;19(1):56. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0757-x.
Al-Namankany A, Ashley P, Petrie A. Development of the first Arabic cognitive dental anxiety scale for children and young adults. World J Meta-Anal 2014;2(3):64–70. DOI: 10.13105/wjma.v2.i3.64.
Al-Nasser L, Yunus F, Ahmed A. Validation of Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale and assessment of cut-off points for high dental anxiety in a Saudi population. J Int Oral Health 2016;8(1):21.
Singh M, Goel NK, Sharma MK, et al. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among students of Punjab University, Chandigarh. Age 2017;86(211):52–58.
Al-Madi EM, AbdelLatif H. Assessment of dental fear and anxiety among adolescent females in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 2002;14(2):77–81.
Al-Namankany A. Assessing dental anxiety in young girls in KSA. J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2018;13(2):123–128. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.11.005.