The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2020 ) > List of Articles


The Inhibitory Ability of Cocoa Pod Husk Extract on Enterococcus faecalis Glucosyltransferase Enzyme Activity

Tamara Yuanita, Ridzki A Oktavianti, Debby F Suryani, Mandojo Rukmo, Sri Kunarti, Andrie H Kusuma

Keywords : Cocoa pod husk extract, Endodontic biofilm formation, Enterococcus faecalis, Glucosyltransferase enzyme, High-performance liquid chromatography

Citation Information : Yuanita T, Oktavianti RA, Suryani DF, Rukmo M, Kunarti S, Kusuma AH. The Inhibitory Ability of Cocoa Pod Husk Extract on Enterococcus faecalis Glucosyltransferase Enzyme Activity. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (3):271-276.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2786

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Background: The presence of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal is considered as one of the factors causing root canal treatment failure since the bacteria are capable of producing glucosyltransferase enzymes that play a role in forming endodontic biofilms. Hence, the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. On the other hand, cocoa pod husk extract which is rich in chemical components especially flavonoids, tannins, and saponins, is thought to have an ability to inhibit Enterococcus faecalis glucosyltransferase enzyme activity. Aim: The aim of this research is to analyze the inhibitory ability of cocoa pod husk extract against E. faecalis glucosyltransferase enzyme activity. Materials and methods: A total of 27 research samples were divided into three groups, namely, positive control (chlorhexidine gluconate 2%), negative control (aquades), and cocoa pod husk extract 3.12%. Next the enzymatic activity of each sample group was calculated based on the size of the fructose area read by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) expressed in percent (%) and then converted to μmol/mL fructose which was considered as 1 unit of glucosyltransferase enzyme activity. Subsequently, the data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The results of data analysis using the Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences between groups of samples (p <0.05). Conclusion: Cocoa pod husk extract of 3.12% has inhibitory effect on E. faecalis glucosyltransferase enzyme activity. Clinical significance: The use of cocoa pod husk extract meets the requirements and is proven useful as an irrigation agent in the treatment of root canals, because it contains antibacterial properties against E. faecalis.

  1. Tsabassum S, Khan FR. Failure of endodontic treatment: the usual suspect. European J of Dent 2016;10(1):144–147. DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.175682.
  2. Pecora CN, Baskaradoss JK, Al-Sharif A, et al. Histological evaluation of root apices of failed endodontic cases. Saudi Endod J 2015;5(2): 120–124. DOI: 10.4103/1658-5984.155450.
  3. Rosen E, Tsesis I, Elbahary S, et al. Eradication of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on human dentin. Front Microbiol 2016;7:2055. Lewandowski Z, Bayenal H. Fundamental of Biofilm Research, 2nd ed., Broken South Park: CRC Press; 2014. p. 4.
  4. Lee Y. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in enterococcus. Infect Chemother 2017;49(3):236–237. DOI: 10.3947/ic.2017.49.3.236.
  5. Michiyo MN. Role of streptococcus mutans surface protein for biofilm formation. Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2017;54(1):22–29.
  6. Rainey K, Michalek SM, Wen ZT, et al. Glycosyltransferase – mediated biofilm matrix dynamics and virulence of streptococcus mutans. Appl Environ Microbiol 2019;85(5):e02247-18. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02247-18.
  7. Zare Jahromi M, Tahmoorespoor A, Hemmat N, et al. The comparison of antibacterial effect of propolis, sodium hypochlorite 5.25%, and chlorhexidine 2% as intracanal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: an ex vivo study. Caspian J Dent Res 2017;6(1):29–35.
  8. Pribadi N, Yonas Y, Saraswati W. The inhibition of streptococcus mutans glucosyl transferase enzyme activity by mangosteen pericarp extract. Dent J (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) 2017;50(2):97–101. DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v50.i2.p97-101.
  9. Mathew ST. Risks and management of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics. J Oral Hyg Health 2015(03):1–5. DOI: 10.4172/2332-0702.1000178.
  10. Faras F, Abo-Alhassan F, Sadeq A, et al. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016;6(5):493–496. DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.192939.
  11. Nguyen VT, Nguyen NH. Proximate composition, extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk (Theobroma cacao L.). Technologies 2017;5(14):1–10. DOI: 10.3390/technologies5020014.
  12. Mu'nisa A, Pagarra H, Maulana Z. Active compounds extraction of cocoa pod husk (Theobroma cacao I.) and potential as fungicides. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1028, Mo. 1. IOP Publishing; 2018. p. 012013.
  13. Adi-Dako O, Ofori-Kwakye K, Frimpong Manso S, et al. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical. J Pharm 2016;2016:1–12. DOI: 10.1155/2016/7608693.
  14. Yuanita T, Putri DV, Rukmo M, et al. Antibiofilm power of cocoa bean pod husk extract (theobroma cacao) against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria (in vitro). IMEDITEC Johor Malaysia 2017.
  15. Ashwini SC. Extreme resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and its role in endodontic treatment failure. Progress Med Sci 2018;2(1):9–13.
  16. Chen L, Bu Q, Xu H, et al. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion in vitro. Microbiol Res 2016: 186–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2016.03.003.
  17. Jamal M, Tasneem U, Hussain T, et al. Bacterial biofilm: its composition, formation and role in human infections. RRJMB 2015;4:1–14.
  18. Renuka S, Muralidharan NP. Comparison in benefits of herbal mouthwashes with chlorhexidine mouthwash: a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10(2):3–7. DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i2.13304.
  19. Vesileva T, Bivolarski V, Bozov P, et al. Influence of ursolic acid on glucooligosaccharides synthesis by dextransucrase from leuconostocmesenteroides Lm 28. J Bio Scie Biotechnol 2015;4(2): 175–183.
  20. Slobodníková L, Fialová S, Rendeková K, et al. Antibiofilm activity of plant polyphenols. Molecules 2016;21(12):1717. DOI: 10.3390/molecules21121717.
  21. Trentin DS, Silva DB, Frasson AP, et al. Natural green coating inhibits adhesion of clinically important bacteria. Sci Rep 2015;5(1):8287. DOI: 10.1038/srep08287.
  22. Ren Z, Chen L, Li J, et al. Inhibition of streptococcus mutans polysachharide synthesis by molecules targeting glucosyltransferase activity. J Oral Microbiol 2016;8(1):1–9. DOI: 10.3402/jom.v8.31095.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.