In Vitro Anticancer Effects of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, Cinnamaldehyde, 4 Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Eugenol on an Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line
Thodur M Balaji, Durai Pandian Chamundeeswari, Dhanapal Sakthisekaran
Anticancer, C. verum J. Presl, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamic acid, Eugenol, Oral squamous cell carcinoma
Citation Information :
Balaji TM, Chamundeeswari DP, Sakthisekaran D. In Vitro Anticancer Effects of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, Cinnamaldehyde, 4 Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Eugenol on an Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (9):1027-1033.
Aim and objective: The present study was conducted to assess the in vitro anticancer effects of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl extract and its active constituents, such as cinnamaldehyde, 4 hydroxycinnamic acid, and eugenol on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Materials and methods: Aqueous, ethanolic, and hydroalcoholic extracts of C. verum J. Presl (bark) were prepared using standardized protocols. Cinnamaldehyde, 4 hydroxycinnamic acid, and eugenol were quantified in the extracts. Total saponins, tannins, and polyphenols were quantified in the selected extracts. A commercially available SCC25 cell line was cultured according to standard protocol. The anticancer effects of the extract, active compounds, and standard cisplatin were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxicity, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, DNA, fragmentation assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, and JC-1 staining (5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro1,1′,3,3′tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide). Results: The hydroalcoholic extracts demonstrated a higher quantity of the active ingredients cinnamaldehyde, 4 hydroxycinnamic acid, and eugenol. The selected extract and active compounds demonstrated anticancer effects via apoptosis induction and S-phase arrest. Apoptosis induction was exerted by the extract via alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion:Cinnamomum verum J. Presl and its active compounds exhibited in vitro anticancer effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies in animal models have to be carried out to assess toxicity and in vivo effects. Clinical significance: The anticancer properties of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl could be explored further for prevention and management of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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