Citation Information :
Novak D. A Novel Saliva Collection Method among Children and Infants: A Comparison Study between Oral Swab and Pacifier-based Saliva Collection. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (1):9-12.
Aim: This study aims to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel pacifier-based saliva collection method on children and infants in comparison to an oral swab-based saliva collection method. Materials and methods: This study was performed during spring 2018 in a clinical non-sponsored setting at Queen Silvia Children\'s Hospital pediatric emergency ward. Saliva collection was performed by comparing oral swab (Salimetrics® SalivaBio\'s Children\'s Swab) with a pacifier-based saliva collection method (Salivac®). All participating children used both saliva collection systems. The amount of saliva collected in 2 minutes was measured. The amount of time needed for the healthcare professional was recorded. Parental preference was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in collected saliva (174 µL for pacifier-based saliva collection and 158 µL for oral swab). The healthcare professional spent significantly less (p < 0.001) mean time with the pacifier-based saliva collection method than with the oral swab (31 vs 150 sec). A total of 48 out of the 52 caretakers preferred the pacifier-based saliva collection method compared to the oral swab. Conclusion: The novel pacifier-based saliva collection method proved to be a feasible, appreciated, and effective way of collecting saliva that simplifies the saliva collection method among children and infants. Clinical significance: The pacifier-based saliva collection method simplifies saliva testing. The closed vacutainer system minimizes the risk of saliva contamination and opens up for novel home testing strategies.
Khan RS, Khurshid Z, Yahya Ibrahim Asiri F. Advancing point-of-care (PoC) testing using human saliva as liquid biopsy. Diagnostics 2017;7(3):39. DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics7030039. PubMed PMID: 28677648; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5617939.
Buttler RM, Bagci E, Brand HS, et al. Testosterone, androstenedione, cortisol and cortisone levels in human unstimulated, stimulated and parotid saliva. Steroids 2018;138:26–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2018.05.013. PubMed PMID: 29864449.
Al Kawas S, Rahim ZH, Ferguson DB. Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease. Arch Oral Biol 2012;57(1):1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.06.013. PubMed PMID: 21774913.
Tryphonopoulos PD, Letourneau N, Azar R. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants. Biol Res Nurs 2014;16(4):398–408. DOI: 10.1177/1099800413507128. PubMed PMID: 24136995.
Groschl M. Saliva: a reliable sample matrix in bioanalytics. Bioanalysis 2017;9(8):655–68. DOI: 10.4155/bio-2017-0010. PubMed PMID: 28504570.
Bhopal S, Verma D, Roy R, et al. The contribution of childhood adversity to cortisol measures of early life stress amongst infants in rural India: findings from the early life stress sub-study of the SPRING cluster randomised controlled trial (SPRING-ELS). Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019;107:241–250. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.05.012. PubMed PMID: 31174162; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC6642338.
Pisanic N, Ballard SB, Colquechagua FD, et al. Minimally invasive saliva testing to monitor norovirus infection in community settings. J Infect Dis 2019;219(8):1234–1242. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiy638. PubMed PMID: 30517651; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC6452293.
Nunes LA, Mussavira S, Bindhu OS. Clinical and diagnostic utility of saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid: a systematic review. Biochem Med 2015;25(2):177–192. DOI: 10.11613/BM.2015.018. PubMed PMID: 26110030; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4470107.
Goshen O, Goldfarb DM, Book L, et al. Recovery of cytomegalovirus DNA from newborn saliva samples by different methods. J Clin Virol 2018;104:73–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2018.05.001. PubMed PMID: 29753934.
Xu R, Cui B, Duan X, et al. Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV. Int J Oral Sci 2020;12(1):11. DOI: 10.1038/s41368-020-0080-z. PubMed PMID: 32300101; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC7162686.
Maastrup R, Hansen BM, Kronborg H, et al. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study. PLoS One 2014;9(2):e89077. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089077. PubMed PMID: 24586513; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3929624.
Schmid KM, Kugler R, Nalabothu P, et al. The effect of pacifier sucking on orofacial structures: a systematic literature review. Prog Orthod 2018;19(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/s40510-018-0206-4. PubMed PMID: 29532184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5847634.
Groschl M, Rauh M. Influence of commercial collection devices for saliva on the reliability of salivary steroids analysis. Steroids 2006;71(13–14):1097–1100. DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2006.09.007. PubMed PMID: 17070563.
Shirtcliff EA, Granger DA, Schwartz E, et al. Use of salivary biomarkers in biobehavioral research: cotton-based sample collection methods can interfere with salivary immunoassay results. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26(2):165–173. DOI: 10.1016/s0306-4530(00)00042-1. PubMed PMID: 11087962.
Corstjens PL, Abrams WR, Malamud D. Detecting viruses by using salivary diagnostics. J Am Dent Assoc 2012;143(10 Suppl):12S–18S. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2012.0338. PubMed PMID: 23034833; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4262792.
Lim Y, Totsika M, Morrison M, et al. The saliva microbiome profiles are minimally affected by collection method or DNA extraction protocols. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):8523. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07885-3. PubMed PMID: 28819242; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5561025.
Lee JW, Jung JY, Lim SK. Simple and rapid identification of saliva by detection of oral streptococci using direct polymerase chain reaction combined with an immunochromatographic strip. Forensic Sci Int Genet 2018;33:155–160. DOI: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2017.12.011. PubMed PMID: 29289820.
Yoon J, Yun SG, Nam J, et al. The use of saliva specimens for detection of influenza A and B viruses by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. J Virol Methods 2017;243:15–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.01.013. PubMed PMID: 28111058.
Kim YG, Yun SG, Kim MY, et al. Comparison between saliva and nasopharyngeal swab specimens for detection of respiratory viruses by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2017;55(1):226–233. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01704-16. PubMed PMID: 27807150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5228234.