Aim: This study aims to describe dental treatment provided to healthy and medically compromised patients treated under general anesthesia (GA) over a four-year period. Materials and methods: A total of 97 patients who received dental treatment under GA at the Saint Joseph University, Lebanon, from 2016 to 2019 were included in the study. The study population was analyzed according to the patient\'s age, medical status, and type of treatment done accordingly. Results: The mean age of the patients was 9.15 ± 8.84 years. About 58.8% were aged below 6 years (primary dentition) and 48.5% had medical problems. Dental procedures performed were mostly extractions (4.00 ± 4.15 per patient) followed by resin composite restorations (3.66 ± 3.02 per patient). The mean number of pulpotomies per patient (p <0.001) and stainless steel crowns (p <0.001) were significantly higher in primary dentition, whereas in permanent dentition, the mean number of endodontic treatments per patient (p = 0.016) was significantly larger. Also, there was a significant difference between the type of treatment done on healthy and medically compromised patients (p <0.001). Conclusion: Better emphasis on oral health education and preventive strategies for children and special need patients is essential. Clinical significance: Dental GA is a reliable treatment for young uncooperative children and medically compromised patients. A multidisciplinary treatment plan must be conducted to ensure optimal oral healthcare and avoid unnecessary extractions.
Tinanoff N, Baez RJ, Diaz Guillory C, et al. Early childhood caries epidemiology, aetiology, risk assessment, societal burden, management, education, and policy: global perspective. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29(3):238–248. DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12484.
Colak H, Dülgergil CT, Dalli M, et al. Early childhood caries update: a review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013;4(1):29–38. DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.107257.
Mallineni SK, Yiu CKY. Dental treatment under general anesthesia for special-needs patients: analysis of the literature. J Investig Clin Dent 2016;7(4):325–331. DOI: 10.1111/jicd.12174.
Lewis C, Teeple E, Robertson A, et al. Preventive dental care for young, Medicaid-insured children in Washington state. Pediatrics 2009;124(1):e120–e127. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-3089.
Oh TJ, Nam OH, Kim MS, et al. Oral health of patients with special health care needs after general anesthesia: a 25-year retrospective study. Pediatr Dent 2018;40(3):215–219.
Faulks D, Fabián Molina G. How to provide the evidence base for techniques and interventions that ensure equal treatment outcomes for people with disability? Spec Care Dentist 2018;38(3):119–120. DOI: 10.1111/scd.12285.
Amin M, Nouri M-R, Hulland S, et al. Success rate of treatments provided for early childhood caries under general anesthesia: a retrospective cohort study. Pediatr Dent 2016;38(4):317–324.
Blumer S, Costa L, Peretz B. Success of dental treatments under behavior management, sedation and general anesthesia. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;41(4):308–311. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-41.4.308.
Linas N, Faulks D, Hennequin M, et al. Conservative and endodontic treatment performed under general anesthesia: a discussion of protocols and outcomes. Spec Care Dentist 2019;39(5):453–463. DOI: 10.1111/scd.12410.
Ferrazzano GF, Sangianantoni S, Mitrano RL, et al. Assessing changes in oral health-related quality of life and body growth in 3–5 years old children following dental treatment under general anaesthesia due to severe dental caries. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2019;20(3):214–218. DOI: 10.23804/ejpd.2019.20.03.09.
Hillebrecht A-L, Hrasky V, Anten C, et al. Changes in the oral healthrelated quality of life in adult patients with intellectual disabilities after dental treatment under general anesthesia. Clin Oral Investig 2019;23(10):3895–3903. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02820-4.
Mallineni SK, Yiu CKY. A retrospective audit of dental treatment provided to special needs patients under general anesthesia during a ten-year period. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;42(2):155–160. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-42.2.13.
Savanheimo N, Vehkalahti MM. Five-year follow-up of children receiving comprehensive dental care under general anesthesia. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:154. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-154.
Takriti M, Alhakim D, Splieth C. Dental characteristics and according treatments of children under GA in Germany. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2019;20(6):617–622. DOI: 10.1007/s40368-019-00447-3.
Koberova Ivancakova R, Suchanek J, Kovacsova F, et al. The analysis of dental treatment under general anaesthesia in medically compromised and healthy children. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16(14):2528. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16142528.
Stanková M, Buèek A, Dostálová T, et al. Patients with special needs within treatment under general anesthesia—meta-analysis. Prague Med Rep 2011;112(3):216–225.
Bücher K, Rothmaier K, Hickel R, et al. The need for repeated dental care under general anaesthesia in children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2016;17(2):129–135.
Kakaounaki E, Tahmassebi JF, Fayle SA. Repeat general anaesthesia, a 6-year follow up. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011;21(2):126–131. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01100.x.
Rudie MN, Milano MM, Roberts MW, et al. Trends and characteristics of pediatric dentistry patients treated under general anesthesia. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;42(4):303–306. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628- 42.4.12.
Tate AR, Ng MW, Needleman HL, et al. Failure rates of restorative procedures following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Pediatr Dent 2002;24(1):69–71.
Khodadadi E, Mohammadpour M, Motamedian SR, et al. Failure rate of pediatric dental treatment under general anesthesia. Dent J (Basel) 2018;6(3):25. DOI: 10.3390/dj6030025.
Chen Y-P, Hsieh C-Y, Hsu W-T, et al. A 10-year trend of dental treatments under general anesthesia of children in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. J Chin Med Assoc 2017;80(4):262–268. DOI: 10.1016/j. jcma.2016.11.001.
Lin Y-TJ, Lin Y-T. Influence of dental plaque pH on caries status and salivary microflora in children following comprehensive dental care under general anesthesia. J Dent Sci 2018;13(1):8–12. DOI: 10.1016/j. jds.2017.05.002.
Kalhan TA, Lin Y-T, Kalhan AC, et al. Dental plaque pH in predicting caries relapse after general anaesthesia—an exploratory study. Int Dent J 2019;69(6):419–427. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12508.
Ulusu T, Odabaº ME, Tüzüner T, et al. The success rates of a glass ionomer cement and a resin-based fissure sealant placed by fifth-year undergraduate dental students. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2012;13(2):94–97. DOI: 10.1007/BF03262852.
Mickenautsch S, Yengopal V. The modified Ottawa method to establish the update need of a systematic review: glass-ionomer versus resin sealants for caries prevention. J Appl Oral Sci 2013;21(5):482–489. DOI: 10.1590/1679-775720130014.