Citation Information :
Nagpal R, Pandey S, Goel M, Kar A, Rapsang E, Matani P. Evaluation of Total Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Mutans-specific SIgA among Children having Dissimilar Caries Status. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (6):651-655.
Introduction: The occurrence of dental caries has become quite a common phenomenon nowadays. The varying levels of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) usually determine the progression of caries. The present study was aimed to determine the correlation between SIgA and mutans-specific antigen SIgA in children having different caries status. Scanning electron microscopic analysis was also completed to correlate the results.
Materials and methods: This study comprised 60 subjects, who were divided into three groups depending on caries status. In all, saliva was collected to determine the level of SIgA and mutans-specific antigen SIgA using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and method were used to evaluate dental caries. Bradford reagent was used to evaluate the levels of protein in the antigen. Furthermore, 20 sections of enamel were randomly obtained to estimate the severity of caries development among groups.
Results: Categorical characteristics among all groups were compared by basic statistical analysis and Chi-squared test. Mean age (years) was found to be 9.214 ± 2.28, 9.5 ± 2.51, and 10.2 ± 2.35 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Mutans-specific IgA level (μg/mL) was 34.63 ± 7.46, 28.24 ± 4.52, and 23.56 ± 1.62 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Total SIgA (μg/mL) was 142.53 ± 22.4, 186.10 ± 24.70, and 214.8 ± 27.56 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Caries index was 6.74 ± 2.16, 2.32 ± 0.86, and 0 ± 0 in groups I, II, and III respectively.
Conclusion: Immunoglobulin A is dominantly present in saliva and it plays a significant role in prevention of dental caries. Hence, dental caries is more likely to develop in subjects with low level of salivary IgA (high caries index).
Clinical significance: A low level of IgA may be associated with a high risk of developing dental caries. This association may possibly be useful in predicting the future caries status. Accordingly, suitable caries-preventive measures can be selected and employed.
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