Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the inhibitory effect of guava extracts on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, to assess the time-kill curve of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and to determine the antiproteolytic activity of guava on P. gingivalis.
Materials and methods: Kanamycin blood agar was used to isolate P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. Ethanolic guava extract (EGE) and aqueous guava extract (AGE) were prepared and the inhibitory effects of these extracts for two periodontal pathogens were tested by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) procedures. Antibacterial activity of guava extracts was determined by well diffusion method. Antiproteolytic activity of guava on protease of P. gingivalis was determined by gelatin liquefaction test.
Results: The MIC determined for AGE and EGE was at 75 μL/mL concentration for P. gingivalis, whereas EGE exhibited the activity at 75 μL/mL on P. gingivalis. The MIC determined for AGE was at 50 μL/mL for A. actinomycetemcomitans, whereas MIC determined for EGE was at 3.12 μL/mL for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Porphyromonas gingivalis was susceptible to EGE compared with AGE. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was more susceptible to guava extracts compared with P. gingivalis.
Conclusion: Guava extract may be a potential therapeutic agent for periodontitis as it shows significant activity against both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.
Clinical significance: Guava leaves extract can be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic drugs and can be a potential therapeutic agent for periodontitis.
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