Citation Information :
Kaur G, Mittal J, Mann HS, Narang S, Kamra M, Kapoor S, Sindhi M, Kataria R. Comparative Study of the Efficacy of 4% Articaine vs 2% Lidocaine in Surgical Removal of Bilaterally Impacted Mandibular Third Molars. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018; 19 (6):743-748.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 4% articaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) vs 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars.
Materials and methods: The present study was undertaken in 20 patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I, of the age group between 18 and 30 years with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars. Each patient underwent similar surgical procedure. In the first appointment, the patient was randomly selected to receive either 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine (both with epinephrine 1:200,000). Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation was done for both the anesthetic solutions. Following parameters were evaluated: total volume of anesthetic solution used during the surgery, onset of action of the anesthetic agent, duration of anesthesia, duration of postoperative analgesia, incidence, type and severity of adverse reactions, any need to reanesthetize the surgical zone and quality of anesthesia provided by the local anesthetic. Subjective pain evaluation was done with the aid of 100 mm length visual analog scale (VAS) both intraoperatively and postoperatively.
Results: In the present study, 4% articaine was found to have a significantly shorter onset of action than 2% lidocaine. Duration of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia of 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 was found to be significantly (1.44 and 1.28 times respectively) longer than 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000. But no significant difference was found in other parameters.
Conclusion: 4% articaine in comparison with 2% lidocaine (both with epinephrine 1:200,000) provided a shorter onset of action and longer duration of anesthesia.
Clinical significance: No significant difference was recorded in the anesthetic efficacy between the two solutions.
Malamed, SF. Hand book of local anesthesia. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): CV Mosby; 2004.
Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D. Efficacy of articaine: a new amide local anaesthetic. J Am Dent Assoc 2000 May;131(5):635-642.
Rebolledo AS, Molina ED, Aytes LB, Escoda CG. Comparative study of the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine versus 2% lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block during surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2007 Mar;12(2):139-144.
Sisk AL. Comparison of etidocaine and lidocaine for control of intra-operative and post-operative bleeding and pain. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1986 Jan;44(1):16-20.
Berlin J, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Efficacy of articaine and lidocaine in a primary intraligamentary injection administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005 Mar;99(3):361-366.
Gregorio LV, Giglio FP, Sakai VT, Modena KC, Colombini BL, Calvo AM, Sipert CR, Dionísio TJ, Lauris JR, Faria FA, et al. A comparison of the clinical anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine (both with 1:200,000 epinephrine) for lower third molar removal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Jul;106(1):19-28.
Cowan A. Clinical assessment of a new local anesthetic agent-carticaine. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1977 Feb;43(2):174-180.
Ram D, Amir E. Comparison of articaine 4% and lidocaine 2% in paediatric dental patients. Int J Paed Dent 2006 Jul;16(4):252-256.
Colombini BL, Modena KC, Calvo AM, Sakai VT, Giglio FP, Dionisio TJ, Trindade AS Jr, Lauris JR, Santos CF. Articaine and mepivacaine efficacy in postoperative analgesia for lower third molar removal: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006 Aug;102(2):169-174.
Santos CF, Modena KC, Giglio FP, Sakai VT, Calvo AM, Colombini BL, Sipert CR, Dionísio TJ, Faria FA, Trindade AS Jr, et al. Epinephrine concentration (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) does not affect the clinical efficacy of 4% articaine for lower third molar removal: a double-blind randomized, crossover study. J Oral Maxillofac Srug 2007 Dec;65(12):2445-2452.
Giovannitti JA, Bennett CR. The effectiveness of 1.5% etidocaine HCl with epinephrine 1:200,000 and 2% lidocaine HCl with epinephrine 1:100,000 in oral surgery: a clinical comparison. J Am Dent Assoc 1983 Oct;107(4):616-618.
Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D. A comparison between articaine HCL and lidocaine HCL in pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent 2000 Jul-Aug;22(4):307-311.
Oliveira PC, Volpato MC, Ramacciato JC, Ranali J. Articaine and lignocaine efficiency in infiltration anesthesia: a pilot study. Br Dent J 2004 Jul;197(1):45-46.
Rosenberg PA, Amin KG, Zibari Y, Lin LM. Comparison of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when used as a supplemental anesthetic. J Endod 2007 Apr;33(4):403-405.
Fan S, Chen WL, Yang ZH, Huang ZQ. Comparison of the efficiencies of permanent maxillary tooth removal performed with single buccal infiltration versus routine buccal and palatal injection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009 Mar;107(3):359-363.
Malamed SF, Gagnon S, Leblanc D. Articaine hydrochloride: a study of safety of a new amide local anesthetic. J Am Dent Assoc 2001 Feb;132(2):177-185.
Alemany-Martínez A, Valmaseda-Castellón E, Berini-Aytés L, Gay-Escoda C. Hemodynamic changes during the surgical removal of lower third molar. J Oral Maxillofac Srug 2008 Mar;66(3):453-461.
Vasconcellos RJ, Vasconcelos BC, Genu PR. Influence of local anesthetics with adrenaline 1:100.000 in basic vital constants during third molar surgery. Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal 2008 Jul;13(7):E431-E437.
Radford DR, Watson TF, Walter JD, Challacombe SJ, The effects of surface machining on heat cured acrylic resin and two soft denture base materials: a scanning electron microscope and confocal microscope evaluation. J Prosthet Dent 1997 Aug;78(2):200-208.
Pinto Lde R, Acosta EJ, Távora FF, da Silva PM, Porto VC. Effect of repeated cycles of chemical disinfection on the roughness and hardness of hard reline acrylic resins. Gerodontology 2010 Jun;27(2):147-153.
Regis RR, Zanini AP, Della Vecchia MP, Silva-Lovato CH, Oliveira Paranhos HF, de Souza RF. Physical properties of an acrylic resin after incorporation of an antimicrobial monomer. J Prosthodont 2011 Jul;20(5):372-379.
Yusuf M, Ahmad A, Shahid M, Khan MI, Khana SA, Manzoor N, Mohammad F. Assessment of colorimetric, antibacterial and antifungal properties of woollen yarn dyed with the extract of the leaves of henna (Lawsonia inermis). J Clean Prod 2012 May;27:42-50.
Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Blehert DS, Egland PG, Foster JS, Palmer RJ Jr. Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2002 Sep;66(3):486-505.
Cunha TR, Regis RR, Bonatti MR, de Souza RF. Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkyl methacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin. Appl Oral Sci 2009 Mar-Apr;17(2):103-107.
Zamperini CA, Machado AL, Vergani CE, Pavarina AC, Giampaolo ET, da Cruz NC. Adherence in vitro of Candida albicans to plasma treated acrylic resin. Effect of plasma parameters, surface roughness and salivary pellicle. Arch Oral Biol 2010 Oct;55(10):763-770.
Verran J, Maryan CJ. Retention of Candida albicans on acrylic resin and silicone of different surface topography. J Prosthet Dent 1997 May;77(5):535-539.
Radford DR, Sweet SP, Challacombe SJ, Walter JD. Adherence of Candida albicans to denture-base materials with different surface finishes. J Dent 1998 Sep;26(7):577-583.
Consani RL, Folli BL, Nogueira MC, Correr AB, Mesquita MF. Effect of polymerization cycles on gloss, roughness, hardness and impact strength of acrylic resins. Braz Dent J 2016 Mar-Apr;27(2):176-180.
Arora P, Singh SP, Arora V. Effect of alumina addition on properties of poly-methyl methacrylate-a comprehensive review. Int J Biotech Trends Technol 2015 Jan-Mar;5(1):1-7.
Bollen CM, Lambrechts P, Quirynen M. Comparison of surface roughness of oral hard materials to the threshold surface roughness for bacterial plaque retention: a review of the literature. Dent Mater 1997 Jul;13(4):258-269.
Zissis AJ, Polyzois GL, Yannikakis SA, Harrison A. Roughness of denture materials: a comparative study. Int J Prosthodont 2000 Mar-Apr;13(2):136-140.
Moura JS, da Silva WJ, Pereira T, Del Bel Cury AA, Rodrigues Garcia RC. Influence of acrylic resin polymerization methods and saliva on the adherence of four Candida species. J Prosthet Dent 2006 Sep;96(3):205-211.
de Castro RD, Mota AC, de Oliveira Lima E, Batista AU, de Araújo Oliveira J, Cavalcanti AL. Use of alcohol vinegar in the inhibition of Candida spp. and its effect on the physical properties of acrylic resins. BMC Oral Health 2015 Apr;15:52.
Azevedo A, Machado AL, Vergani CE, Giampaolo ET, Pavarina AC. Hardness of denture base and hard chair-side reline acrylic resins. J Appl Oral Sci 2005 Sep;13(3):291-295.
Faltermeier A, Rosentritt M, Müssig D. Acrylic removable appliances: comparative evaluation of different post-polymerization methods. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007 Mar;131(3):301.e16-301.e22.
Aydogan Ayaz E, Durkan R, Bagis B. The effect of acrylamide incorporation on the thermal and physical properties of denture resins. J Adv Prosthodont 2013 May;5(2):110-117.
Kati FA, Al-Kaabi AF. Effect of oil paint addition on micro hardness of acrylic ocular prosthesis. Iraq Dent J 2016 Aug;38(2): 87-89.
Faraji G, Asadi P. Characterization of AZ91/alumina nanocomposite produced by FSP. Mater Sci Eng A 2011 Mar;528(6): 2431-2440.
Köroðlu A, Þahin O, Kürkçüoðlu I, Dede DO, Özdemir T, Hazer B. Silver nanoparticle incorporation effect on mechanical and thermal properties of denture base acrylic resins. J Appl Oral Sci 2016 Nov-Dec;24(6):590-596.
Gad MM, Al-Thobity AM, Shahin SY, Alsaqer BT, Ali AA. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on Candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture bases and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis prevention. Int J Nanomedicine 2017 Jul;28(12): 5409-5419.
Sundareswaran S, Ramakrishnan R. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need. J Orthod Sci 2016;5:57-63.
Schabel BJ, McNamara JA Jr, Franchi L, Baccetti T. Q-sort assessment vs visual analog scale in the evaluation of smile esthetics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009 Apr;135 (4 Suppl):S61-S71.
Mergen JL, Southard KA, Dawson DV, Fogle LL, Casko JS, Southard TE. Treatment outcomes of growing Class II Division 1 patients with varying degrees of anteroposterior and vertical dysplasias, Part 2. Profile silhouette evaluation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Apr;125(4):457-462.
Sloss EA, Southard KA, Qian F, Stock SE, Mann KR, Meyer DL, Southard TE. Comparison of soft-tissue profiles after treatment with headgear or Herbst appliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008 Apr;133(4):509-514.
Mann KR, Marshall SD, Qian F, Southard KA, Southard TE. Effect of maxillary anteroposterior position on profile esthetics in headgear-treated patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011 Feb;139(2):228-234.
Hockley A, Weinstein M, Borislow AJ, Braitman LE. Photos vs silhouettes for evaluation of African American profile esthetics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012 Feb;141(2): 161-168.
Tehranchi A, Saedi S, Motamedian SR, Rohani K. Radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions and anatomic variations. Br J Med Med Res 2015 May;8(5):454-462.
Tehranchi A, Motamedian SR, Saedi S, Kabiri S, Shidfar S. Correlation between frontal sinus dimensions and cephalometric indices: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Dent 2017 Jan-Mar;11(1):64-70.
World Health Organization. WHOQOL-BREF: introduction, administration, scoring and generic version of the assessment: field trial version, december 1996. Geneva; 1996.
Deshpande S, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N, et al. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Yoga 2008 Jan;1(1):2-10.
Patra S, Telles S, et al. Positive impact of cyclic meditation on subsequent sleep. Med Sci Monit 2009 Jul;15(7):CR375-81.
Hegde A, Metri K, Chwadhary P, Babu N, Nagendra HR, et al. Effects of yoga on cardiac health sleep quality, mental health and quality of life of elderly individuals with chronic ailments. Voice Res. 2017;6(1):1-5.
Splinter MY. Rotigotine: transdermal dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Ann Pharmacother 2007 Feb;41(2):285-295.
Iranzo A, Molinuevo JL, Santamaría J, Serradell M, Martí MJ, Valldeoriola F, Tolosa E. Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol 2006 Jul;5(7):572-577.
Howell MJ, Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease. JAMA Neurol 2015 Jun;72(6):707-712.
Sixel-Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Rapid eye movement sleep behavioral events: a new marker for neurodegeneration in early Parkinson disease? Sleep 2014 Mar;37(3):431-438.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Goyal V, Singh S, Srivastava AK, Behari M. RBD in Parkinson's disease: a clinical case control study from North India. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011 Jul;113(6):472-476.
Vibha D, Shukla G, Singh S, Goyal V, Srivastava AK, Behari M. Lower prevalence of sleep disturbances in familial versus sporadic Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire based study. J Neurol Sci 2010 Aug;295(1-2):27-30.
Abu Alhaija ES, Al-Nimri KS, Al-Khateeb SN. Self perception of malocclusion among Jordanian school children. Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):292-295.
Kolawole KA, Otuyemi DE, Jebode SO, Unweni AA. Awareness for malocclusion and desire for orthodontic treatment need in 11-14year old Nigerian school and their parents. Aust Orthod J 2008 May;24(1):21-25.
Cucalon A 3rd, Smith RJ. Relationship between by adolescent orthodontics patients and performance on psychological tests. Angle Orthod 1990 Summer;60(2):107-114.
Southard KA, Tolley EA, Arheart KL, Hackett-Renner CA, Southard TE. Application of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory in evaluating orthodontic compliance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991 Dec;100(6):553-561.
Kharbanda OP. What is the prevalence of malocclusion in India? Do we know orthodontic treatment needs of our country. J Indian Orthod Soc 1999 Apr-Jun;32(2):33-41.
Siddiqui TA, Shaikh A, Fida M. Agreement between orthodontist and patient perception using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Saudi Dent J 2014 Oct;26(4):156-165.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. Orthodontic treatment needs in an urban Iranian population in epidemiological study of 11-14 years old children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2009 Jun;10(2):69-74.
Grando G, Young AA, Vedovello Filho M, Vedovello SA, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Prevalence of malocclusions in a young Brazilian population. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 2008 Summer;19(2):13-16.
Nadim R, Aslam K, Rizwan S. Frequency of malocclusion among 12 -15 years old school children in three sectors of Karachi. Pak Oral Dent J 2014 Sep;34(3):510-514.
Reddy ER, Manjula M, Sreelakshmi N, Rani ST, Aduri R, Patil BD. Prevalence of malocclusion among 6 to 10 year old Nalgonda school children. J Int Oral Health 2013 Dec;5(6): 49-54.
Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004 Nov;126(5):604-607.
Kaur H, Pavithra US, Abraham R. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013 Jul-Dec;3(2):97-102.
Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod 2003 Jun;25(3):273-278.
Zimmermann E, Gamborg M, Holst C, Baker JL, Sørensen TI, Berentzen TL. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015 May;5(4):e006998.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Roberts AB, DeGennaro N, Homko CJ, Connolly-Diamond M, Sherwin R, Tamborlane WV, Diamond MP. Fetal Doppler and behavioral responses during hypoglycemia induced with the insulin clamp technique in pregnant diabetic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 Jan;172(1 Pt 1):151-155.
Patrick J, Campbell K, Carmichael L, Natale R, Richardson B. Patterns of gross fetal body movements over 24-hour observation intervals during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 Feb;142(4):363-371.
Ornoy A, Ratzon N, Greenbaum C, Peretz E, Soriano D, Dulitzky M. Neurobehavior of school age children born to diabetic mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998 Sep;79(2):F94-F99.
Wolf, A. Developmental evaluation on early school age children born to gestational diabetic mothers. Israel: Hebrew University; 1997.
Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.