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VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2019 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Smear Layer Removing Ability of Root Canal Irrigation Solutions: A Review

Zahed Mohammadi, Sousan Shalavi, Shapour Yaripour, Jun-Ichiro Kinoshita, Atsufumi Manabe, Mikihiro Kobayashi, Luciano Giardino, Flavio Palazzi, Farid Sharifi, Hamid Jafarzadeh

Keywords : Citric acid, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Irrigation, Maleic acid, Mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent, Smear layer

Citation Information : Mohammadi Z, Shalavi S, Yaripour S, Kinoshita J, Manabe A, Kobayashi M, Giardino L, Palazzi F, Sharifi F, Jafarzadeh H. Smear Layer Removing Ability of Root Canal Irrigation Solutions: A Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (3):395-402.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2528

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-03-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this review is to address the smear layer removing the ability of root different canal irrigants including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), tetraclean, citric acid, Q-Mix, maleic acid, and smear clear. Background: Smear layer is a layer which is produced during instrumentation. It contains both organic and inorganic materials. It may also contain bacteria and their byproduct considering the root canal situation. This layer may prevent the penetration of the healing material introduced to the canal to the interior of the dentinal tubules. In addition, it can affect the adaptation of sealing materials to the root canal walls. Review results: The smear layer removal ability of MTAD is superior and faster than EDTA. Tetraclean is similarly composed of an acid, an antibiotic, and a detergent. The presence of doxycycline is believed to help the smear layer removal ability of these irrigants. Antibiotics such as tetracycline had similar smear layer removal ability as even citric acid. EDTA is an amino acid with a chelating ability that sequestrates metal ions. Some believed EDTA smear layer removing ability is better than MTAD, tetraclean, Smear Clear, and 20% citric acid which is controversial in case of comparison between MTAD and EDTA. Phosphoric acid is efficient enough to be comparable to EDTA in removing the smear layer. Maleic acid is an organic compound with acid etching smear layer removal. Its ability seems to be similar or even better than EDTA. Citric acid as another organic acid is believed to be used as smear removing agent. HEBP is another chelating agent that can be used in combination with NaOCl; however, HEBP is a weak decalcifying agent compared to EDTA and hence cannot be applied as a mere final rinse. QMiX is a combination of CHX, EDTA, and detergent and should be used at final rinse. It is believed that QMiX is as efficient as EDTA. Smear clear is a 17% EDTA solution including an anionic and cationic (cetrimide) surfactant. The ability of QMiX is similar to EDTA. Conclusion: There are different canal irrigation solutions with various smear layer removal ability that some should be used as a mere final rinse and some should not. Clinical significance: The usage of canal irrigation solutions depends on the clinical situation and preference of the dentists. This study provides a good guide for clinician of the field.


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