Citation Information :
Rezende M, Kapuchczinski AC, Vochikovski L, Demiate IM, Loguercio AD, Kossatz S. Staining Power of Natural and Artificial Dyes after At-home Dental Bleaching. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20 (4):424-427.
Introduction: Bleached enamel surfaces may undergo changes and retain more dye, which is a reason to recommend the reduction/suspension of foods with dyes during dental bleaching.
Aim: Evaluate the effects of the action of natural and artificial dyes on the bleached enamel of extracted human teeth.
Materials and methods: Fifty human premolars were used, which were distributed in 5 groups (n = 10) according to the following staining solutions: GW (distilled water); GB (beet); Gca (caramel); GC (carmine); and GR (red 40). After the removal of the root and pulp section, the teeth were embedded in acrylic resin blocks, stored in artificial saliva, and kept at 37oC. At-home bleaching was performed using 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) for 3 hours daily for 3 weeks. After each daily session of bleaching, the specimens were exposed to the dye solution twice a day for 5 min; one of these exposures was performed immediately after bleaching. The color was recorded using a spectrophotometer according to the CIE Lab system (ƒ¢E) for the following periods: baseline, during bleaching (after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week) and post-bleaching (after 1 week and 1 month). The color was evaluated by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey\'s test (ƒ¿=0.05).
Results: There was effective dental bleaching for all groups: GW (18.5 ± 6.1), GB (19.9 ± 4.4), Gca (18.9 ± 6.1), GC (20.2 ± 4.6), and GR (19.3 ± 4.2), p <0.01. No color rebound was observed after 1 week and 1 month (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The exposure to beet, carmine, caramel, and red 40 dyes did not interfere with the effectiveness of dental bleaching using 16% CP.
Clinical significance: Dyes consumption during bleaching did not affect the effectiveness of dental bleaching.
Samorodnitzki-Naveh GR, Grossman Y, Bachner YG, et al. Patients’ self-perception of tooth shade in relation to professionally objective evaluation. Quintessence Int 2010;41(5):e80-83.
Carey CM. Tooth whitening: what we now know. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2014;14 Suppl:70-76.
Joiner A, Jones NM, Raven SJ. Investigation of factors influencing stain formation utilizing an in situ model. Adv Dental Res 1995;9(4): 471-476.
De Geus JL, Bersezio C, Urrutia J, et al. Effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity with at-home bleaching in smokers: a multicenter clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 2015;146(4):233-240.
Caneppele TMF, Souza AC, Valera MC, et al. Influence of tooth soaking in substances with dyes regarding the effectiveness of tooth whitening using 16 carbamide peroxide. Arq Odontol 2009;45(4):171- 177.
Haywood VB, Heymann HO. Nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 1989;20(3):173-176.
Abouassi T, Wolkewitz M, Hahn P. Effect of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide on enamel surface: an in vitro study. Clin Oral Investig 2011;15(5):673-680.
Schiavoni RJ, Turssi CP, Rodrigues AL Jr, Serra MC, Pécora JD, Fröner IC. Effect of bleaching agents on enamel permeability. Am J Dent 2006;19(5):313-316.
Bodanezi A, de Bittencourt ME, Bodanezi RV, et al. Surface Modifications on Aesthetically Restored Teeth following Home Bleaching with 16% Peroxide Carbamide. Eur J Dent 2011;5(2):157-162.
Meireles SS, Heckmann SS, Leida FL, et al. Efficacy and safety of 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening gels: a randomized clinical trial. Oper Dent 2008;33(6):606-612.
Setien V, Roshan S, Cala C, et al. Pigmentation susceptibility of teeth after bleaching with 2 systems: an in vitro study. Quintessence Int 2009;40(1):47-52.
Bernardon JK, Sartori N, Ballarin A, et al. Clinical performance of vital bleaching techniques. Oper Dent 2010;35(1):3-10.
Aberoumand A. A Review Article on Edible Pigments Properties and Sources as Natural Biocolorants in Foodstuff and Food Industry. World J. Dairy & Food Sci 2011;6(1):71-78.
Wrolstad RE, Culver CA. Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2012;3:59-77.
Rezende M, Loguercio AD, Reis A, et al. Clinical Effects of Exposure to Coffee During At-home Vital Bleaching. Oper Dent 2013;38(6):E229- 236.
Attin T, Manolakis A, Buchalla W, et al. Influence of tea on intrinsic colour of previously bleached enamel. J Oral Rehabil 2003 May;30(5):488-494.
Mori AA, Lima FF, Benetti AR, et al. Susceptibility to Coffee Staining during Enamel Remineralization Following the In-Office Bleaching Technique: An In Situ Assessment. J Esthet Restor Dent 2016;28 Suppl 1:S23-31.
Berger SB, Coelho AS, Oliveira VA, et al. Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching. J Appl Oral Sci 2008;16(3):201-204.
Liporoni PC, Souto CM, Pazinatto RB, et al. Enamel susceptibility to coffee and red wine staining at different intervals elapsed from bleaching: a photoreflectance spectrophotometry analysis. Photomed Laser Surg 2010;28 (Suppl 2):S105-109.
Attia ML, Aguiar FH, Mathias P, et al. The effect of coffee solution on tooth color during home bleaching applications. Am J Dent 2009;22(3):175-179.
Addy M, Prayitno S, Taylor L, et al. An in vitro study of the role of dietary factors in the aetiology of tooth staining associated with the use of chlorhexidine. J Periodontal Res 1979;14(5):403-410.
Pirolo R, Mondelli RF, Correr GM, et al. Effect of coffee and a colabased soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. J Appl Oral Sci 2014; 22(6):534-540.
Azer SS, Hague AL, Johnston WM. Effect of pH on tooth discoloration from food colorant in vitro. J Dent 2010;38(Suppl 2):e106-e109.
Summary of Color Additives for Use in the United States in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices. Available at: http://www. fda.gov/ForIndustry/colorAdditives/ColorAdditiveInventories/ucm115641.htm#ftnote3
Matis BA, Cochran MA, Eckert GJ, et al. In vivo study of two carbamide peroxide gels with different desensitizing agents. Oper Dent 2007;32(6):549-555.
Tanaka R, Shibata Y, Manabe A, et al. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes. Arch Oral Biol 2010;55(4):300-308.
Justino LM, Tames DR, Demarco FF. In situ and in vitro effects of bleaching with carbamide peroxide on human enamel. Oper Dent 2004;29(2):219-225.
Nicholson JW. Biologic considerations. In: Schwartz RS, Summitt JB, Robbins JW, Santos J, editors. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc, 1996; p 1-25.