Citation Information :
Gómez C, Salcedo-Moncada D, Pineda M. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium and Sodium Hypochlorite at Different Concentrations on a Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans: An In Vitro Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (2):178-182.
Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO at 2.5% and 5.25%) and calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2 at 2.5%] on a biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212™ and Candida albicans ATCC 10231™. Materials and methods: We performed an experimental in vitro study. Strains of C. albicans and E. faecalis, which had previously been reactivated were used. Then the colonies to be used were standardized in a turbidity standard to guarantee a quantity of 108 (CFU/mL) using the McFarland scale (0.5). Subsequently, the biofilm formed in brain-heart infusion agar was seeded into 42 sterile disks previously embedded with the experimental substances. Both 2.5% NaClO and Ca(ClO)2 solutions were placed in each Petri dish. They were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and the inhibition halos were measured using the Kirby-Bauer technique. Results: The means between the halos corresponding to NaClO and Ca(ClO)2 at 2.5% were 13.38 ± 0.64 mm and 13.42 ± 0.62 mm, respectively. According to the Tukey test, no statistically significant differences were found between the hypochlorite groups evaluated (p = 0.989). Conclusion: Both Ca(ClO)2 and NaClO have a similar antimicrobial efficacy with biofilm based on E. faecalis and C. albicans, with no statistically significant differences between the two. Clinical significance: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Ca(ClO)2 and NaClO as endodontic irrigators to combat the most frequent microorganisms of the root canal.
Dumani A, Tanrisever D, Sihay D, et al. Efficacy of calcium hypoclorite with and without Er,Cr: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser activation on Enterococcus faecalis in experimentally infected root canals. Niger J Clin Pract 2019;22(2):215–220.
Pramodh NR, Kumar CNV, Pradeep MR, et al. Comparative evaluation of tensile strength in die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1185–1189. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2197.
Soligo LT, Lodi E, Farina AP, et al. Antibacterial efficacy of synthetic and natural-derived novel endodontic irrigant solutions. Braz Dent J 2018;29(5):459–464. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201802172.
Tyan K, Kang J, Jin K, et al. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy and skin safety of a novel color additive in combination with chlorine disinfectants. Am J Infect Control 2018;46(11):1254–1261. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.04.223.
Sedigh-Shams M, Gholami A, Abbaszadegan A, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy and cytocompatibility of calcium hypochlorite solution as a root canal irrigant: an in vitro investigation. Iran Endod J 2016;11(3):169–174.
Dumani A, Guvenmez HK, Yilmaz S, et al. Antibacterial efficacy of calcium hypochlorite with vibringe sonic irrigation system on Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Biomed Res Int 2016; 2016:8076131. DOI: 10.1155/2016/8076131.
Liao CH. Acidified sodium chlorite as an alternative to chlorine for elimination of salmonella on alfalfa seeds. J Food Sci 2009;74(4): M159–M164. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01125.x.
Coaguila-Llerena H, Rodrigues EM, Tanomaru-Filho M, et al. Effects of calcium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride on L929 and human periodontal ligament cells. Braz Dent J 2019;30(3):213–219. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201902280.
Iglesias JE, Pinheiro LS, Weibel DE, et al. Influence of surfactants addition on the properties of calcium hypochlorite solutions. J Appl Oral Sci 2019;27:e20180157. DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2018-0157.
Cardoso LR, Baldasso FER, Delai D, et al. Effect of EDTA, sodium, and calcium hypochlorite on the inorganic component of root canal dentin: A SEM analysis. Microsc Res Tech 2019;82(2):128–133. DOI: 10.1002/jemt.23151.
Dal Bello Y, Mezzalira GI, Jaguszewski LA, et al. Effectiveness of calcium and sodium hypochlorite in association with reciprocating instrumentation on decontamination of root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Aust Endod J 2019;45(1):92–97. DOI: 10.1111/aej.12289.
Souza MA, Tumelero Dias C, Zandoná J, et al. Antimicrobial activity of hypochlorite solutions and reciprocating instrumentation associated with photodynamic therapy on root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis—an in vitro study. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018;23:347–352. DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.07.015.
Blattes GB, Mestieri LB, Böttcher DE, et al. Cell migration, viability and tissue reaction of calcium hypochlorite based-solutions irrigants: An in vitro and in vivo study. Arch Oral Biol 2017;73:34–39. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.08.037.
Leonardo NG, Carlotto IB, Luisi SB, et al. Calcium hypochlorite solutions: evaluation of surface tension and effect of different storage conditions and time periods over ph and available chlorine content. J Endod 2016;42(4):641–645. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.01.006.
Ayhan H, Sultan N, Çirak M, et al. Antimicrobial effects of various endodontic irrigants on selected microorganisms. Int Endod J 1999;32(2):99–102. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.1999.00196.x.
Lin YH, Mickel AK, Chogle S. Effectiveness of selected materials against Enterococcus faecalis: part 3. The antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 2003;29(9):565–566. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200309000-00006.
Fidalgo T, Barcelos R, Portela M, et al. Inhibitory activity of root canal irrigants against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Braz Oral Res 2010;24(4):406–412. DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242010000400006.
Radcliffe C, Potouridou L, Qureshi R, et al. Antimicrobial activity of varying concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the endodontic microorganisms Actinomyces israelii, A. naeslundii, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Int Endod J 2004;37(7):438–446. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2004.00752.x.
Valera MC, Maekawa LE, Oliveira L, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals. J Appl Oral Sci 2013;21(2):118–123. DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757201302135.
Wang Q, Zhang C, Chu C, et al. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis. International Journal of Oral Science 2012;4(1):19–23. DOI: 10.1038/ijos.2012.17.
Dutta A, Saunders W. Comparative evaluation of calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite on soft-tissue dissolution. J Endod 2012;38(10):1395–1398. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.06.020.
Tanomaru-Filho M, Leonardo MR, Silva LA, et al. Inflammatory response to different endodontic irrigating solutions. Int Endod J 2002;35:735–739. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00544.x.