Impact of Oral Health Literacy on Periodontal Health among Low-income-group Workers of Dental Institutes in Patna, Bihar, India
Sumita Kumari, Supriya Singh, Jitendra P Singh
Citation Information :
Kumari S, Singh S, Singh JP. Impact of Oral Health Literacy on Periodontal Health among Low-income-group Workers of Dental Institutes in Patna, Bihar, India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (7):787-791.
Aim: To evaluate the impact of oral health literacy (OHL) on the periodontal health among low-income-group workers of dental institutes. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 class III and IV workers of dental college. Data collection was done by using a customized pro forma including demographics, REALD-30 for calculating OHL, and items on oral hygiene habits like toothpaste use, brushing frequency, and any other oral hygiene aid. Following which periodontal health status was determined, which was categorized into severe, moderate, and mild periodontitis (health). The analysis was done using the SPSS 11.5. Periodontal health status was associated with OHL scores, oral hygiene habits, and demographics using the chi-square test. The statistical significance level was set at 5% level. Results: Among the 137 subjects, 25 participants reported health/mild periodontitis, 53 had moderate periodontitis, and 59 had severe periodontitis. Low OHL was observed in 52.5% and only 13.8% had high OHL. The participants who had low OHL, 56.94% (n = 41), were having severe disease, while the subjects who had better OHL, only 21.05% (n = 4) were found to have severe disease. Conclusion: The people with low socioeconomic classes can be reached effectively if the community involvement concept is used through the workers of dental institutions. But first efforts should be made to improve the OHL of these workers. Clinical significance: Improving OHL can be of great help to the clinicians and the community health workers because it helps them to make patient adherent to the treatment and the medications prescribed to them. Periodontitis affects people with low socioeconomic status and in the present study it was class III and IV workers. Improving OHL of this population will decrease the oral disease burden of India.
World Health Organization. Health promotion glossary. Geneva: WHO; 1998.
Nutbeam D. Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for a contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promot Int 2000;15(3):259–267. DOI: 10.1093/heapro/15.3.259.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Health, U.S. Public Health Service, et al. The invisible barrier: literacy and its relationship with oral health. A report of a workgroup sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Health, U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services. J Public Health Dent 2005;65(3):174–182.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A national call to action to promote oral health. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; 2003.
Jones M, Lee JY, Rozier RG. Oral health literacy among adult patients seeking dental care. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138(9):1199–1208. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2007.0344quiz 266-7.
Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, et al. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2011;155(2):97–116. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-155-2-201107190-00005.
Holtzman JS, Atchison KA, Gironda MW, et al. The association between oral health literacy and failed appointments in adults attending a university-based general dental clinic. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013;42(3):263–270. DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12089.
Horowitz A, Kleinman D. Oral health literacy: the new imperative to better oral health. Dent Clin N Am 2008;52(2):333–344. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2007.12.001.
Sabbahi DA, Lawrence HP, Limeback H, et al. Development and evaluation of an oral health literacy instrument for adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009;37(5):451–462. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2009.00490.x.
Sharma R. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale revision for 2011 and formula for real-time updating. Indian J Pediatr 2012;79(8):1108. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-012-0735-7.
Sanzone AL, Lee YJ, Divaris K, et al. A cross sectional study examines social desirability bias in caregiver reporting of children's oral health behaviours. BMC Oral Health 2013;13:24. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-24.
Census of India 2011. Provisional population totals – India data sheet. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India Ministry of Home Affairs. http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/indiaatglance.html (Last accessed on 24.08.2017).
Mathur B, Talwar C. National Oral Health Survey and Flouride Mapping 2002-2003. New Delhi, India: Dental Council of India; 2004.
Hirschfeld L, Wasserman B. A long-term survey of tooth loss in 600 treated periodontal patients. J Periodontol 1978;49(5):225–237. DOI: 10.1902/jop.19126.96.36.199.
Karnam RR, Kumar NS, Eshwar S, et al. Cognitive ability as a determinant of socioeconomic and oral health status among adolescent college students of Bengaluru, India. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(12):ZC62–ZC66. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/21132.9102.
Lee JY, Rozier RG, Lee SY, et al. Development of a word recognition instrument to test health literacy in dentistry: the REALD-30 - a brief communication. J Public Health Dent 2007;67(2):94–98. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2007.00021.x.
Page RC, Eke PI. Case definitions for use in population-based surveillance of periodontitis. J Periodontol 2007;78(7 Suppl):1387–1399. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2007.060264.
Khianjte V, Sen S, Deolia S, et al. Relationship between oral health literacy and oral health status among class four workers of Wardha, Maharashtra, India. University Journal Of Dental Sciences 2017;2(3):25–30.
Wehmeyer MMH, Corwin CL, Guthmiller JM, et al. The impact of oral health literacy on periodontal health status. J Public Health Dent 2014;74(1):80–87. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00375.x.
Baskaradoss JK. Relationship between oral health literacy and oral health status. BMC Oral Health 2018;18(1):172. DOI: 10.1186/s12903-018-0640-1.
Abdellatif HM, Burt BA. An epidemiological investigation into the relative importance of age and oral hygiene status as determinants of periodontitis. J Dent Res 1987;66(1):13–18. DOI: 10.1177/00220345870660010201.
Michalowicz BS, Diehl SR, Gunsolley JC, et al. Evidence of a substantial genetic basis for risk of adult periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71(11):1699–1707. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2000.71. 11.1699.
Marlow NM, Slate EH, Bandyopadhyay D, et al. Health insurance status is associated with periodontal disease progression among Gullah African-Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Public Health Dent 2011;71(2):143–151. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2011.00243.x.
Siukosaari P, Ajwani S, Ainamo A, et al. Periodontal health status in the elderly with different levels of education: a 5-year follow-up study. Gerodontology 2012;29(2):e170–e178. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00437.x.
Parker EJ, Jamieson LM. Associations between indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes. BMC Oral Health 2010;10(1):3. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-10-3.
Lee JY, Divaris K, Baker AD, et al. Oral health literacy levels among a low-income WIC population. J Public Health Dent 2011;71(2):152–160. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2011.00244.x.