The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 8 ( August, 2020 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Verbal and Visual Information on the Level of Anxiety among Dental Implant Patients

Mohammed Ghazi Sghaireen

Citation Information : Sghaireen MG. Effect of Verbal and Visual Information on the Level of Anxiety among Dental Implant Patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (8):846-851.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2842

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 21-12-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; The Author(s).


Aim: To compare the effect of visual information and verbal communication on the level of anxiety among patients undergoing dental implant (DI) therapy. Materials and methods: A total of 270 patients who were undergoing DI treatment were recruited for the study. An equal number of patients (n = 90) were randomly allocated into three study groups which were formed on the basis of the mode of delivery. Subjects in group I received verbal information, whereas patients in group II were shown a video of surgery on manikins. Group III subjects were made to watch a video of surgery on a real patient. Before the surgery, anxiety levels were measured for all patients using the modified Corah dental anxiety scale (MDAS). Results: Questionnaires were filled by all patients and were later analyzed. The values of Cronbach's α and the behavioral involvement subscale were 0.89 and 0.91, indicating hemogeneous sample. Patients of group I showed significantly reduced anxiety levels (p < 0.01) followed by groups II and III. Conclusion: Verbal information generated less anxiety than visual information on patients undergoing DI therapy. Clinical significance: To assess the best method of information delivery to dental implant patients in which their anxiety will be minimal.

  1. Rizwan H, Kaleem M, Zahid S, et al. Potential of dental implants as drug carriers. Pakistan Oral Dent J 2017;37(4):561–565.
  2. Sghaireen MG, Al-Omiri MK. Relationship between impact of maxillary anterior fixed prosthodontic rehabilitation on daily living, satisfaction, and personality profiles. J Prosthet Dent 2016;115(2): 170–176. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.07.009.
  3. Jivraj S, Chee W. Rationale for dental implants. Br Dent J 2006;200(12):661. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4813718.
  4. Prathima V, Anjum MS, Reddy PP, et al. Assessment of anxiety related to dental treatments among patients attending dental clinics and hospitals in Ranga Reddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Oral Health Prev Dent 2014;12(4):357–364. DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a31660.
  5. Candido MC, Andreatini R, Zielak JC, et al. Assessment of anxiety in patients who undergo surgical procedures for tooth implants: a prospective study. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015;19(3):253–258. DOI: 10.1007/s10006-014-0480-3.
  6. Hashem AA, Claffey NM, O'Connell B. Pain and anxiety following the placement of dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implan 2006;21(6):943–950.
  7. Astramskaite I, Pinchasov G, Gervickas A, et al. Validation of universal scale in oral surgery (USOS) for patient's psycho-emotional status rating. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2017;8(4):e2. DOI: 10.5037/jomr.2017.8402.
  8. Camacho-Alonso F, Vilaplana-Vivo J, Caballero-Guerrero PM, et al. Impact of audiovisual information on anxiety and fear in patients undergoing dental implant treatment. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2019;21(6):1189–1198. DOI: 10.1111/cid.12851.
  9. Kazancioglu H-O, Dahhan A-S, Acar A-H. How could multimedia information about dental implant surgery effects patients’ anxiety level? Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2017;22(1):e102. DOI: 10.4317/medoral.21254.
  10. Vachiramon A, Wang WC, Vachiramon T. The use of acupuncture in implant dentistry. Implant Dent 2004;13(1):58–64. DOI: 10.1097/
  11. Taguchi T, Fukuda K, Sekine H, et al. Intravenous sedation and hemodynamic changes during dental implant surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implan 2011;26(6):1303–1308.
  12. Stamp AJ, Dorman ML, Vernazza CR, et al. Can intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam be effective at facilitating surgical dentistry in adolescent orthodontic patients? A service evaluation. Br Dent J 2017;222(2):113. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2017.78.
  13. Yamamoto T, Fujii-Abe K, Fukayama H, et al. The effect of adding midazolam to propofol intravenous sedation to suppress gag reflex during dental treatment. Anesth Prog 2018;65(2):76–81. DOI: 10.2344/anpr-65-02-03.
  14. Tobias JD, Leder M. Procedural sedation: a review of sedative agents, monitoring, and management of complications. Saudi J Anaesth 2011;5(4):395–410. DOI: 10.4103/1658-354X.87270.
  15. Wakita R, Kohase H, Fukayama H. A comparison of dexmedetomidine sedation with and without midazolam for dental implant surgery. Anesth Prog 2012;59(2):62–68. DOI: 10.2344/11-11.1.
  16. CARE PO. Practice guidelines for intravenous conscious sedation in dentistry (2017). Anesth Prog 2018;65(4):e1–e18. DOI: 10.2344/anpr-65-04-15w.
  17. Corah NL, Gale EN, Illig SJ. Assessment of a dental anxiety scale. J Am Dent Associat (1939) 1978;97(5):816–819. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1978.0394.
  18. Humphris GM, Morrison T, Lindsay S. The modified dental anxiety scale: validation and United Kingdom norms. Commun Dent Health 1995.
  19. Coolidge T, Chambers MA, Garcia LJ, et al. Psychometric properties of spanish-language adult dental fear measures. BMC Oral Health 2008;8(1):15. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-8-15.
  20. Carter AE, Carter G, Boschen M, et al. Pathways of fear and anxiety in dentistry: a review. World J Clin Cases 2014;2(11):642–653. DOI: 10.12998/wjcc.v2.i11.642.
  21. Sghaireen MG, Zwiri AMA, Alzoubi IA, et al. Anxiety due to dental treatment and procedures among university students and its correlation with their gender and field of study. Int J Dent 2013;2013:647436. DOI: 10.1155/2013/647436.
  22. Shoben JrEJ, Borland L. An empirical study of the etiology of dental fears. J Clin Psychol 1954;10(2):171–174. DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(195404);2-o.
  23. Pommer B, Zechner W, Watzak G, et al. Progress and trends in patients’ mindset on dental implants. I: level of information, sources of information and need for patient information. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22(2):223–229. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.02035.x.
  24. AL-Dwairi ZN, El Masoud BM, Al-Afifi SA, et al. Awareness, attitude, and expectations toward dental implants among removable prostheses wearers. J Prosthodont 2014;23(3):192–197. DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12095.
  25. Sghaireen MG, Al-Zarea BK, Al-Shorman HM, et al. Clinical measurement of the height of the interproximal contact area in maxillary anterior teeth. Int J Health Sci 2013;7(3):325. DOI: 10.12816/0006061.
  26. Mousa MA, Lynch E, Sghaireen MG, et al. Influence of time and different tooth widths on masticatory efficiency and muscular activity in bilateral free-end saddles. Int Dent J 2017;67(1):29–37. DOI: 10.1111/idj.12256.
  27. Sghaireen MG, Al-Omiri M, Patil S, et al. Maximum bite force for children on primary and permanent teeth: within subject comparison. Europ Sci J 2014;10(30):1857–7881.
  28. Kleinknecht RA, Klepac RK, Alexander LD. Origins and characteristics of fear of dentistry. J Am Dent Associat 1973;86(4):842–848. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1973.0165.
  29. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with dental anxiety. Eur J Oral Sci 2003;111(2):93–98. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0722.2003.00028.x.
  30. Anzar W, Afaq A, Baig QA. Assessment of dental anxiety in adults undergoing dental procedures in Dow international dental college. J Dow Univer Health Sci (JDUHS) 2017;11(1).
  31. Acharya S, Sangam DK. Dental anxiety and its relationship with self-perceived health locus of control among Indian dental students. Oral Health Prev Dent 2010;8(1):9–14.
  32. Berggren U, Carlsson SG. Psychometric measures of dental fear. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol 1984;12(5):319–324. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1984.tb01463.x.
  33. Economou GC. Dental anxiety and personality: investigating the relationship between dental anxiety and self-consciousness. J Dent Educ 2003;67(9):970–980.
  34. Thomson WM, Locker D, Poulton R. Incidence of dental anxiety in young adults in relation to dental treatment experience. Commu Dent Oral Epide 2000;28(4):289–294. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2000.280407.x.
  35. Mulholland F, Jackson J. The experience of older adults with anxiety and depression living in the community: aging, occupation and mental wellbeing. Br J Occupat Ther 2018;81(11):657–666. DOI: 10.1177/0308022618777200.
  36. Patel PA, Patel PP, Khadilkar AV, et al. Impact of occupation on stress and anxiety among Indian women. Women Health 2017;57(3):392–401. DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2016.1164273.
  37. Salzwedel C, Petersen C, Blanc I, et al. The effect of detailed, video-assisted anesthesia risk education on patient anxiety and the duration of the preanesthetic interview: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthe Analges 2008;106(1):202–209. DOI: 10.1213/01.ane.0000287665.96156.72.
  38. Stewart A, Sodhi V, Harper N, et al. Assessment of the effect upon maternal knowledge of an information leaflet about pain relief in labour. Anaesthesia 2003;58(10):1015–1019. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2003.03360.x.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.