Plasma Osteocalcin Levels, Status of Oral Disease and Alteration in Mandibular Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women
Deepa Venkatesh, Parveen Rajora, Shweta V Sagare, Simerpreet K Bagga, Prabhleen Kaur, Vaishali Gandhi
Citation Information :
Venkatesh D, Rajora P, Sagare SV, Bagga SK, Kaur P, Gandhi V. Plasma Osteocalcin Levels, Status of Oral Disease and Alteration in Mandibular Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (8):916-921.
Aim: The present study was undertaken for assessing plasma osteocalcin levels, status of oral disease, and alteration in mandibular bone density in postmenopausal women (PMW). Materials and methods: In all, 80 premenopausal women and 80 PMW were enrolled. For analyzing the oral dryness, clinical score of oral dryness (CSOD) on a scale of up to 10 was used. Complete dental profiling of all the patients was done. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken for all the patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by measuring the following parameters: mandibular cortical index (MCI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical width (MCW), and fractal dimension (FD). Osteocalcin levels were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. All the results were recorded and analyzed. Results: Mean osteocalcin levels of PMW (453.12 ng/mL) were significantly higher in comparison to the premenopausal women (249.28 ng/mL). Postmenopausal women had significantly higher CSOD and number of peri-apical radiolucencies in comparison to premenopausal women. Bone mineral density as assessed by MCI was found to be negatively and significantly correlated with oral disease status and osteocalcin levels. Significant difference was obtained while comparing the MCI inbetween the two study groups. Conclusion: There is significantly higher prevalence of oral lesions along with oral dryness in postmenopausal women. Also, thinning of mandibular cortex is significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Higher plasma osteocalcin levels help in predicting osteopenia/osteoporosis at an early stage in such patients. Clinical significance: In PMW, special considerations should be made while planning for dental implant therapy.
Whelan TJ, Goss PE, Ingle JN, et al. Assessment of quality of life in MA.17: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of letrozole after 5 years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(28):6931–6940. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.11.181.
Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek D, Kulik TB, Jarosz MJ, et al. Quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal polish women living in Lublin province – differences between urban and rural dwellers. Ann Agric Environ Med 2012;19(1):129–133.
Lieben L, Callewaert F, Bouillon R. Bone and metabolism: a complex crosstalk. Horm Res 2009;71(Suppl 1):134–138. DOI: 10.1159/000178056.
Fukumoto S, Martin J. Bone as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2009;20(5):230–236. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2009.02.001.
Seibel MJ. Biochemical markers of bone remodelling. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003;32(1):83–113. DOI: 10.1016/s0889-8529(02)00077-4.
Som N, Ray S. Menopause-specific quality of life of urban women in west Bengal, India. Menopause Int 2012;18(3):99–105. DOI: 10.1258/mi.2012.011107.
Boulet MJ, Oddens BJ, Lehert P, et al. Climacteric and menopause in seven south-east asian countries. Maturitas 1994;19(3):157–176. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5122(94)90068-x.
Osailan SM, Pramanik R, Shirlaw P, et al. Clinical assessment of oral dryness: development of a scoring system related to salivary flow and mucosal wetness. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012;114(5):597–603. DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2012.05.009.
Halse A, Molven O. A strategy for the diagnosis of periapical pathosis. J Endod 1986;12(11):534–538. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(86)80319-3.
Beckstrom BW, Horsley SH, Scheetz JP, et al. Correlation between carotid area calcifications and periodontitis: a retrospective study of digital panoramic radiographic findings in pretreatment cancer patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;103(3):359–366. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.08.016.
Klemetti E, Kolmakov S, Kröger H. Pantomography in assessment of the osteoporosis risk group. Scand J Dent Res 1994;102(1):68–72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01156.x.
Benson BW, Prihoda TJ, Glass BJ. Variations in adult cortical bone mass as measured by a panoramic mandibular index. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;71(3):349–356. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(91)90314-3.
Dutra V, Devlin H, Susin C, et al. Mandibular morphological changes in low bone mass edentulous females: evaluation of panoramic radiographs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;102(5):663–668. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.02.023.
Koh KJ, Park HN, Kim KA. Prediction of age-related osteoporosis using fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs. Imaging Sci Dent 2012;42(4):231–235. DOI: 10.5624/isd.2012.42.4.231.
Yaşar F, Akgünlü F. The differences in panoramic mandibular indices and fractal dimension between patients with and without spinal osteoporosis. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol 2006;35(1):1–9. DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/97652136.
Von Wowern N. Microradiographic and histomorphometric indices of mandibles for diagnosis of osteopenia. Scand J Dent Res 1982;90(1):47–63. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1982.tb01523.x.
Lai YL. Osteoporosis and periodontal disease. J Chin Med Assoc 2004;67(8):387–388.
Jeffcoat MK. Osteoporosis: a possible modifying factor in oral bone loss. Ann Periodontal 1998;3(1):312–321. DOI: 10.1902/annals.19188.8.131.522.
Reid IR. Relationships between fat and bone. Osteoporos Int 2008;19(5):595–606. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-007-0492-z.
Lee NK, Karsenty G. Reciprocal regulation of bone and energy metabolism. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2008;8(4):351. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2008.02.006.
Vs K, K P, Ramesh M, et al. The association of serum osteocalcin with the bone mineral density in post menopausal women. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(5):814–816. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5370.2946.
Thanakun S, Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri S, Na Mahasarakham CP, et al. Increased plasma osteocalcin, oral disease, and altered mandibular bone density in postmenopausal women. Int J Dent 2019;2019:3715127. DOI: 10.1155/2019/3715127Published 2019 Oct 24.
Taguchi A. Triage screening for osteoporosis in dental clinics using panoramic radiographs. Oral Dis 2010;16(4):316–327. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2009.01615.x.
Gaur B, Chaudhary A, Wanjari PV, et al. Evaluation of panoramic aadiographs as a screening tool of osteoporosis in post menopausal women: a cross sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(9):2051–2055. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5853.3403.
Munakata M, Tachikawa N, Honda E, et al. Influence of menopause on mandibular bone quantity and quality in Japanese women receiving dental implants. Arch Osteoporos 2011;6(1-2):51–57. DOI: 10.1007/s11657-011-0058-8.
Hu W-w, Ke Y-h, He J-w. Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely associated with plasma glucose and body mass index in healthy chinese women. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2014;35(12):1521–1526. DOI: 10.1038/aps.2014.92.
Sternfeld B, Wang H, Quesenberry Jr. CP. Physical activity and changes in weight and waist circumference in midlife women: findings from the study of women's health across the nation. Am J Epidemio 2004;160(9):912–922. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwh299.
Irie K, Sakakura Y, Tsuruga E, et al. Three-dimensional changes of the mandible and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat examined by micro-focus computed tomography. J Jpn Soc Periodontol 2004;46(4):288–293. DOI: 10.2329/perio.46.288.