Citation Information :
Gandhi S, Rajamohan S, Kumar BP. Comparative Evaluation of the Antioxidant Effects of Oregano on Bleached Enamel Using Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Analysis: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2020; 21 (10):1170-1175.
Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel antioxidant oregano against conventional antioxidants sodium ascorbate and green tea through comparison of the baseline weight percentage (wt%) of minerals prior to bleaching with values after bleaching protocols and antioxidant application by employing energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDAX). Materials and methods: Thirty noncarious, freshly extracted human permanent maxillary incisors without any visible defects were selected as samples. They were divided into three groups (n = 10) based on the antioxidant treatment received as follows: group I—10% sodium ascorbate solution, group II—10% green tea solution, and group III—5% oregano solution. 35% hydrogen peroxide was employed for bleaching. The wt% of teeth was calculated at three time intervals. The initial wt% was calculated prior to the bleaching procedure. The second one was calculated after subjecting to bleaching protocols, and final one was calculated after antioxidant treatment using EDAX. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in the calcium/phosphorus ratio for the bleached samples in comparison with the sound enamel. There was a comparable and significant increase in the calcium/phosphorus ratio values after application of the antioxidant with insignificant difference among the antioxidants evaluated in the study. Conclusion: Treatment with antioxidants helped in the reversal of mineral loss, which occurred due to the bleaching procedure while the efficacy of 10% oregano on reversal of the calcium and phosphorus ratio was found to comparable to that of 10% sodium ascorbate and green tea. Clinical significance: Application of antioxidants after bleaching reduced the time delay in performing the adhesive procedures without compromising their clinical efficacy.
Viscio D, Gaffar A, Fakhry-Smith S, et al. Present and future technologies of tooth whitening. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry. Jamesburg, NJ 1995. Supplement. 2000(28):S36.
Prathap S, Rajesh H, Boloor VA, et al. Extrinsic stains and management: a new insight. J Acad Indus Res 2013;1(8):435–442.
Caneppele TM, Torres CR, Bresciani E. Analysis of the color and fluorescence alterations of enamel and dentin treated with hydrogen peroxide. Braz Dent J 2015;26(5):514–518. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201300249.
Leonard Jr RH, Bentley C, Eagle JC, et al. Nightguard vital bleaching: a long-term study on efficacy, shade retention, side effects, and patients’ perceptions. J Esthet Restor Dent 2001;13(6):357. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2001.tb01021.x.
Abouassi T, Wolkewitz M, Hahn P. Effect of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide on enamel surface: an in vitro study. Clin Oral Investig 2011;15(5):673–680. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-010-0439-1.
Azrak B, Callaway A, Kurth P, et al. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010;22(6):391–399. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2010.00372.x.
Ben-Amar A, Liberman R, Gorfil C, et al. Effect of mouthguard bleaching on enamel surface. Am J Dent 1995;8(1):29–32.
Bitter NC. A scanning electron microscopy study of the effect of bleaching agents on enamel: a preliminary report. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 1992;67(6):852–855. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(92)90600-f.
Bitter NC. A scanning electron microscope study of the long-term effect of bleaching agents on the enamel surface in vivo. Gen Dent 1998;46(1):84–88.
Cadenaro M, Navarra CO, Mazzoni A, et al. An in vivo study of the effect of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent on enamel. J Am Dent Assoc 2010;141(4):449–454. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2010.0198.
Ernst CP, Marroquin BB, Willershausen-Zönnchen B. Effects of hydrogen peroxide-containing bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel. Quintessence Int 1996;27(1):53–56.
Güorgan S, Bolay S, Alacam R. In vitro adherence of bacteria to bleached or unbleached enamel surfaces. J Oral Rehabil 1997;24(8):624–627. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1997.00534.x.
Haywood VB, Leech T, Heymann HO, et al. Nightguard vital bleaching: effects on enamel surface texture and diffusion. Quintessence Int 1990;21(10):801–804.
Hegedüs C, Bistey T, Flora-Nagy E, et al. An atomic force microscopy study on the effect of bleaching agents on enamel surface. J Dent 1999;27(7):509–515. DOI: 10.1016/s0300-5712(99)00006-8.
Hunsaker KJ, Christensen GJ, Christensen RP. Tooth bleaching chemicals-influence on teeth and restorations. In Journal of Dental Research 1990;69:303–303. 1619 Duke St, Alexandria, VA 22314: Amer Assoc Dental Research.
Sa Y, Sun L, Wang Z, et al. Effects of two in-office bleaching agents with different pH on the structure of human enamel: an in situ and in vitro study. Oper Dent 2013;38(1):100–110. DOI: 10.2341/11-173-L.
Smidt A, Feuerstein O, Topel M. Mechanical, morphologic, and chemical effects of carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on human enamel in situ. Quintessence Int 2011;42(5):407–412.
Sun L, Liang S, Sa Y, et al. Surface alteration of human tooth enamel subjected to acidic and neutral 30% hydrogen peroxide. J Dent 2011;39(10):686–692. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.07.011.
Titley KC, Torneck CD, Ruse ND. The effect of carbamide-peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of a microfil resin to bovine enamel. J Dent Res 1992;71(1):20–24. DOI: 10.1177/00220345920710010301.
Xu B, Li Q, Wang Y. Effects of pH values of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface properties. Oper Dent 2011;36(5):554–562. DOI: 10.2341/11-045-1.
Josey AL, Meyers IA, Romaniuk K, et al. The effect of a vital bleaching technique on enamel surface morphology and the bonding of composite resin to enamel. J Oral Rehabil 1996;23(4):244–250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.1996.tb00848.x.
Lai SC, Mak YF, Cheung GS, et al. Reversal of compromised bonding to oxidized etched dentin. J Dent Res 2001;80(10):1919–1924. DOI: 10.1177/00220345010800101101.
Vidhya S, Srinivasulu S, Sujatha M, et al. Effect of grape seed extract on the bond strength of bleached enamel. Oper Dent 2011;36(4): 433–438. DOI: 10.2341/10-228-L.
Coccimiglio J, Alipour M, Jiang ZH, et al. Antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and its major constituents. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016;2016:1404505. DOI: 10.1155/2016/1404505.
Poorni S, Kumar RA, Shankar P, et al. Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the calcium: phosphorus ratio of enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide: an in vitro quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Contemp Clin Dent 2010;1(4):223. DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.76388.
Fearon J. Tooth whitening: concepts and controversies. J Ir Dent Assoc 2007;53(3):132–140.
Rotstein I, Lehr Z, Gedalia I. Effect of bleaching agents on inorganic components of human dentin and cementum. J Endod 1992;18(6):290–293. DOI: 10.1016/s0099-2399(06)80956-8.
Madison S, Walton R. Cervical root resorption following bleaching of endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 1990;16(12):570–574. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80199-3.
Kaya AD, Türkün M, Arici ME. Reversal of compromised bonding in bleached enamel using antioxidant gel. Oper Dent 2008;33(4): 441–447. DOI: 10.2341/07-115.
Gogia H, Taneja S, Kumar M, et al. Effect of different antioxidants on reversing compromised resin bond strength after enamel bleaching: an in vitro study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD 2018;21(1):100. DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_325_16.
Sharafeddin F, Motamedi M, Modiri S. Effect of immediate application of pomegranate peel, grape seed and green tea extracts on composite shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel. Res J Biol Sci 2013;8:83–87.
Koparal AT, Zeytinoglu M. Effects of carvacrol on a human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549. Cytotechnol 2003; 43(1-3):149–154. DOI: 10.1023/b:cyto.0000039917.60348.45.
Ozelin AA, Guiraldo RD, Carvalho RV, et al. Effects of green tea application time on bond strength after enamel bleaching. Braz Dent J 2014;25(5):399–403. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201300015.
Chang HT, Hsu SS, Chou CT, et al. Effect of thymol on Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Pharmacol 2011;88(3–4):201–212. DOI: 10.1159/000331864.