The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Operative Torque Analysis to Evaluate Cutting Efficiency of Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments for Glide Path: An In Vitro Comparison

Gianluca Gambarini, Massimo Galli, Andrea Cicconetti, Dario Di Nardo, Marco Seracchiani, Federico Valenti Obino, Gabriele Miccoli, Luca Testarelli

Keywords : Cutting efficiency, Glide path, Nickel-titanium, Operative torque, Rotary instruments

Citation Information : Gambarini G, Galli M, Cicconetti A, Nardo DD, Seracchiani M, Obino FV, Miccoli G, Testarelli L. Operative Torque Analysis to Evaluate Cutting Efficiency of Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments for Glide Path: An In Vitro Comparison. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (3):215-218.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3061

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-03-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cutting efficacy of two different nickel titanium rotary instruments by a novel methodology: the operative torque (torque and time needed to progress toward the apex). Materials and methods: Ten fresh extracted upper first premolars with two canals were instrumented with a KaVo (Biberach, Germany) and a KaVo 1:1 handpiece at 300 rpm with maximum torque set at 2 N. One canal was instrumented with ProGlider NiTi rotary instruments (Dentsply Sirona Endodontics, Ballaigues, Switzerland), with tip size of 16.02, and the other one with EgdeGlidePath rotary instrument (EdgeEndo, Albuquerque, New Mexico). Mean instrumentation time, mean torque values, and maximum torque values were evaluated for each instrument. The significance level was set at p <0.05. Results: EdgeGlidePath instruments reached the working length in significantly less time with a significantly smaller amount of torque when compared to ProGlider (p >0.05). No instruments exhibited flute deformation or underwent intracanal failure. Conclusions: Operative torque is related to the capability to cut dentin and progress toward the apex: the smaller the torque values, the higher the cutting ability (and safety). Operative torque is also dependent on debris removal and irrigation techniques. Nevertheless, both operative torque and instrumentation time are clinically relevant parameters for evaluating instruments’ performance (i.e., cutting ability). Clinical significance: Operative torque during endodontic instrumentation helps understanding the overall performance in terms of both cutting efficiency and safety.

PDF Share
  1. Plotino G, Giansiracusa Rubini A, Grande NM, et al. Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and WaveOne reciprocating instruments. J Endod 2014;40(8):1228–1230. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.01.041.
  2. Gambarini G, Giansiracusa Rubini A, Sannino G, et al. Cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium rotary and reciprocating instruments after prolonged use. Odontology 2016;104(1):77–81. DOI: 10.1007/s10266-014-0183-0.
  3. Baek SH, Lee CJ, Versluis A, et al. Comparison of torsional stiffness of nickel-titanium rotary files with different geometric characteristics. J Endod 2011;37:1283–1286. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2011.05.032.
  4. Blum J, Machtou P, Micallef J. Location of contact areas on rotary Profile instruments in relationship to the forces developed during mechanical preparation on extracted teeth. Int Endod J 1999;32(2):108–114. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.1999.00200.x.
  5. Gambarini G, Miccoli G, Seracchiani M, et al. Role of the flat-designed surface in improving the cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic NiTi rotary instruments. Materials (Basel) 2019;12(16):2523. DOI: 10.3390/ma12162523.
  6. Gambarini G, Galli M, Di Nardo D, et al. Differences in cyclic fatigue lifespan between two different heat treated NiTi endodontic rotary instruments: WaveOne Gold vs EdgeOne Fire. J Clin Exp Dent 2019;11(7):e609–e613. DOI: 10.4317/jced.55839.
  7. Miccoli G, Gaimari G, Seracchiani M, et al. In vitro resistance to fracture of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments made with different thermal treatments. Ann Stomatol (Roma) 2017;8(2):53–58. DOI: 10.11138/ads/2017.8.2.059.
  8. Gambarini G, Piasecki L, Miccoli G, et al. Classification and cyclic fatigue evaluation of new kinematics for endodontic instruments. Aust Endod J 2019;45(2):154–162. DOI: 10.1111/aej.12294.
  9. Gambarini G, Di Nardo D, Miccoli G, et al. The influence of a new clinical motion for endodontic instruments on the incidence of postoperative pain. Clin Ter 2017;168(1):e23–e27. DOI: 10.7417/CT.2017.1977.
  10. Pedullà E, Leanza G, La Rosa GRM, et al. Cutting efficiency of conventional and heat-treated nickel-titanium rotary or reciprocating glide path instruments. Int Endod J 2020;53(3):376–384. DOI: 10.1111/iej.13224.
  11. de Cristofaro Almeida G, Aun DP, Resende PD, et al. Comparative analysis of torque and apical force to assess the cutting behaviour of ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal endodontic instruments. Aust Endod J 2020;46(1):52–59. DOI: 10.1111/aej.12351.
  12. Spicciarelli V, Corsentino G, Ounsi HF, et al. Shaping effectiveness and surface topography of reciprocating files after multiple simulated uses. J Oral Sci 2019;61(1):45–52. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.17-0311.
  13. Vasconcelos RA, Arias A, Peters OA. Lateral and axial cutting efficiency of instruments manufactured with conventional nickel-titanium and novel gold metallurgy. Int Endod J 2018;51(5):577–583. DOI: 10.1111/iej.12822.
  14. Gambarini G, Seracchiani M, Piasecki L, et al. Measurement of torque generated during intracanal instrumentation in vivo. Int Endod J 2019;52(5):737–745. DOI: 10.1111/iej.13042.
  15. Gambarini G, Galli M, Seracchiani M, et al. In vivo evaluation of operative torque generated by two nickel-titanium rotary instruments during root canal preparation. Eur J Dent 2019;13(4):556–562. DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698369.
  16. Sattapan B, Palamara JE, Messer HH. Torque during canal instrumentation using rotary nickel-titanium files. J Endod 2000;26(3):156–160. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200003000-00007.
  17. Boessler C, Peters O, Zehnder M. Impact of lubricant parameters on rotary instrument torque and force. J Endod 2007;33(3):280–283. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2006.11.007.
  18. Boessler C, Paque F, Peters OA. The effect of electropolishing on torque and force during simulated root canal preparation with ProTaper shaping files. J Endod 2009;35(1):102–106. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.09.008.
  19. Kwak, SW, Ha JH, Cheung GS, et al. Effect of the glide path establishment on the torque generation to the files during instrumentation: an in vitro measurement. J Endod 2018;44(3):496–500. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2017.09.016.
  20. Peters O, Barbakow F. Dynamic torque and apical forces of Profile.04 rotary instruments during preparation of curved canals. Int Endod J 2002;35(4):379–389. DOI: 10.1046/j.0143-2885.2001.00494.x.
  21. Schrader C, Peters OA. Analysis of torque and force with differently tapered rotary endodontic instruments in vitro. J Endod 2005;31(2):120–123. DOI: 10.1097/01.don.0000137634.20499.1d.
  22. Yared G, Bou Dagher FE, Machtou P. Influence of rotational speed, torque and operator's proficiency on Profile failures. Int Endod J 2001;34(1):47–53. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2001.00352.x.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.