Association between Parity and Dental Caries Experience among US Women: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hebah M Hamdan, Thayer Scott, Elizabeth K Kaye, Woosung Sohn
Dental caries, Oral health, Parity, Pregnancy, Women\'s health
Citation Information :
Hamdan HM, Scott T, Kaye EK, Sohn W. Association between Parity and Dental Caries Experience among US Women: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (8):933-938.
Aim and objective: This study aims to investigate the association between parity and dental caries among US women.
Materials and methods: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2004) data for parous women aged 20–45 years were used for our analysis (n = 1,914). The association between parity (number of pregnancies resulted in live births) and caries experience [the decayed, missing, and filling teeth (DMFT) index] was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. SAS software version 9.1 was used for the statistical analyses. We used survey procedures (e.g., SURVEYFREQ, SURVEYMEANS, and SURVEYREG) that incorporate information on the appropriate weights to account for NHANES\'s complex sampling design.
Results: The bivariate analysis showed a trend of increase in dental caries experience among parous women as the number of live births increased (p = 0.007). After adjusting for confounders, such as age, socioeconomic status (SES), dental care coverage, and utilization, a significant association was still observed between parity level and dental caries experience (p = 0.009).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that higher parity can be associated with dental caries experience among US women of reproductive age.
Clinical significance: Clinicians should be aware of this finding to promote better oral health care and education among women with increased parity.
Clemmens DA, Kerr AR. Improving oral health in women: nurses' call to action. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2008;33(1):10–14. DOI: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000305650.56000.e8.
United States Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General, National Institute of Dental, Craniofacial Research (US). Oral health in America: a report of the Surgeon General. US Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.
Sheiham A. Oral health, general health and quality of life. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83(9):644–644. Available at: https://www.scielosp.org/article/bwho/2005.v83n9/644-644/
Dye BA, Vargas CM, Lee JJ, et al. Assessing the relationship between children's oral health status and that of their mothers. J Am Dent Assoc 2011;142(2):173–183. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2011.0061.
Lukacs JR, Largaespada LL. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: Saliva, hormones, and “life-history” etiologies. Am J Hum Bio 2006;18(4):540–555. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20530.
Hytten F, Chamberlain G. Clinical physiology in obstetrics. Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1980.
Muramatsu Y, Takaesu Y. Oral health status related to subgingival bacterial flora and sex hormones in saliva during pregnancy. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 1994;35(3):139–151. Available at: https://europepmc.org/article/med/8620592
Laine MA. Effect of pregnancy on periodontal and dental health. Acta Odontol Scand 2002;60(5):257–264. DOI: 10.1080/00016350260248210.
Onyejaka NK, Eboh OF, Amobi EO, et al. Relationship between socio-demographic profile, parity and dental caries among a group of nursing mothers in South East, Nigeria. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clín Integr 2020;21. DOI: 10.1590/pboci.2021.014.
Ueno M, Ohara S, Inoue M, et al. Association between parity and dentition status among Japanese women: Japan public health center-based oral health study. BMC Public Health 2013;13(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-993.
Russell SL, Ickovics JR, Yaffee RA. Parity & untreated dental caries in US women. J Dent Res 2010;89(10):1091–1096. DOI: 10.1177/0022034510375282.
CDC. About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.htm [Accessed August 14, 2021].
Sohn W, Burt BA, Sowers MR. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition. J Dent Res 2006;85(3):262–266. DOI: 10.1177/154405910608500311.
Ressler-Maerlender J, Krishna R, Robison V. Oral health during pregnancy: current research. J Women's Health 2005;14(10):880–882. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2005.14.880.
Steinberg BJ, Minsk L, Gluch JI, et al. Women's oral health issues. In: Women's health in clinical practice. Humana Press; 2008. p. 273–293.
Barak S, Oettinger-Barak O, Oettinger M, et al. Common oral manifestations during pregnancy: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003;58(9):624–628. DOI: 10.1097/01.OGX.0000083542.14439.CF.
Suresh L, Radfar L. Pregnancy and lactation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol 2004;97(6):672–682. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2004.02.002.
Silk H, Douglass AB, Douglass JM, et al. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician 2008;77(8):1139–1144. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1139.html?_ga=2.62882348.1446642176.1592284086-619642441.1591286279
Gaffield ML, Gilbert BJ, Malvitz DM, et al. Oral health during pregnancy: an analysis of information collected by the pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(7): 1009–1016. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2001.0306.
Redford M. Beyond pregnancy gingivitis: bringing a new focus to women's oral health. J Dent Educ 1993;57(10):742. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED449699.pdf#page=169