The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2021 ) > List of Articles


Novel Management of Hypersensitive Dentin Using Propolis-based Herbal Desensitizing Agents: An In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

Sabari Murugesan, Prasanna Kumar, N Bharath Naga Reddy, Karthikeyan Arumugam, Purushotham Mohankumar, Karthik Chandrasekaran

Keywords : Casein phosphate, Dental varnish, Dentinal tubules, Propolis, Scanning electron microscope, Tricalcium phosphate

Citation Information : Murugesan S, Kumar P, Reddy NB, Arumugam K, Mohankumar P, Chandrasekaran K. Novel Management of Hypersensitive Dentin Using Propolis-based Herbal Desensitizing Agents: An In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopic Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (9):1030-1034.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3154

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 06-01-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the efficacy of novel propolis-based varnish against the two conventional varnishes on quantitative and qualitative assessments of occlusion of dentin tubules and resistance to erosive and abrasive wears employing scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods: Thirty human premolars free from caries extracted due to orthodontic reasons were included in the study. Experimental group was done based on treatment received and divided into three groups. Group A: ClinProXT Varnish (n = 10), Group B: MI Varnish (n = 10), and Group C: Propolis Varnish (n = 10) were applied. Teeth were cleaned and decoronation of crown was done with dentin disks. Dentin specimens of dimension 4 × 4 × 2 mm were prepared and subjected to finishing and polishing. The sample specimens were submersed in EDTA solution for a period of five minutes to open up the dentinal tubules. This was followed by treatment with varnishes and subjection to acidic-abrasive challenge. The specimens were analyzed with an image analyzer connected to SEM for the verification of the number of opened dentin tubules. The parameter assessed in SEM includes size, topography and surface characteristics of dentinal tubule were assessed. The obliteration potential of dentinal tubules was assessed with SEM images. Additionally, the dentin surface loss and resistance to acidic and abrasive wear were also evaluated with SEM. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey\'s test. Results: MI Varnish caused higher obliteration of dentin tubules followed by ClinproXT Varnish. Propolis Varnish showed the least obliteration of dentinal tubules among tested experimental groups. After acidic-abrasive challenge, Propolis Varnish was found to be more efficient with less material loss among the experimental groups tested. There was an insignificant difference among the MI Varnish and ClinProXT Varnish groups. Conclusion: Simulation of hypersensitive lesions mimicking the clinical scenario was a challenging task in this in vitro study. All varnishes tested in the study had good efficacy in the management of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Propolis-based varnish had good resistance to material loss after subjection to acidic-abrasive challenge among the tested materials. The casein phosphopeptide (CPP)-amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based MI Varnish had good efficacy to obliterate the dentinal tubules among the tested materials. It was prudent to select the varnishes with good long-term efficacy to survive in the clinical scenario which still remains a challenging task for the clinicians. Clinical significance: The stability of the varnish plays a vital role in maintenance of its long-term efficacy. The chemical nature along with the ability of the material to interact with the substrate plays a major role in management of DH.

PDF Share
  1. Gysi A. An attempt to explain the sensitiveness of dentine. Br J Dental Sci 1900;43:865–868. DOI: 11.1700/010655583454423.
  2. Branstrom M, Lindén LÅ, Åström A. The hydrodynamics of the dental tubule and of pulp fluid. Caries Res 1967;1(4):310–317. DOI: 10.1159/000259530.
  3. Pashley DH. Dentin permeability, dentin sensitivity, and treatment through tubule occlusion. J Endod 1986;12(10):465–474. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(86)80201-1.
  4. Kripal K, Chandrasekaran K, Chandrasekaran S, et al. Treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity using Propolis varnish: a scanning electron microscope study. Indian J Dent Res 2019;30(2):249. DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_400_18.
  5. Kooshki F, Pajoohan S, Kamareh S. Effects of treatment with three types of varnish remineralizing agents on the micro hardness of demineralized enamel surface. J Clin Exp Dent 2019;11(7):e630. DOI: 10.4317/jced.55611.
  6. Mitra SB, Lee CY, Bui HT, et al. Long-term adhesion and mechanism of bonding of a paste-liquid resin-modified glass-ionomer. Dent Mater 2009;25(4):459–466. DOI: 10.1016/
  7. Scaramucci T, Borges AB, Lippert F, et al. Sodium fluoride effect on erosion–abrasion under hyposalivatory simulating conditions. Arch Oral Biol 2013;58(10):1457–1463. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.06.004.
  8. Lan WH, Liu HC, Lin CP. The combined occluding effect of sodium fluoride varnish and Nd: YAG laser irradiation on human dentinal tubules. J Endod 1999;25(6):424–426. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(99)80271-4.
  9. Garofalo SA, Sakae LO, Machado AC, et al. In vitro effect of innovative desensitizing agents on dentin tubule occlusion and erosive wear. Oper Dent 2019;44(2):168–177. DOI: 10.2341/17-284-L.
  10. Pereira JC, Segala AD, Gillam DG. Effect of desensitizing agents on the hydraulic conductance of human dentin subjected to different surface pre-treatments-an in vitro study. Dent Mater 2005;21(2): 129–138. DOI: 10.1016/
  11. Canali GD, Rached RN, Mazur RF, et al. Effect of erosion/abrasion challenge on the dentin tubule occlusion using different desensitizing agents. Braz Dent J 2017;28(2):216–224. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201700811.
  12. Lynch RJ, Ten Cate JM. Effect of calcium glycerophosphate on demineralization in an in vitro biofilm model. Caries Res 2006;40(2):142–147. DOI: 10.1159/000091061.
  13. Virupaxi SG, Roshan NM, Poornima P, et al. Comparative evaluation of longevity of fluoride release from three different fluoride varnishes–an in vitro study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(8):ZC33. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/19209.8242.
  14. Zhou J, Watanabe S, Watanabe K, et al. In vitro study of the effects of fluoride-releasing dental materials on remineralization in an enamel erosion model. J Dent 2012;40(3):255–263. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2011.12.016.
  15. Purra AR, Mushtaq M, Acharya SR, et al. A comparative evaluation of propolis and 5.0% potassium nitrate as a dentine desensitizer: a clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18(4):466. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.138695.
  16. Hussain RA, Dannan A, Al-Ahmad M, et al. Propolis treatment for dental sensitivity after tooth bleaching. Imperial J Interdiscip Res 2017;2:1436–1439. DOI: 10.2675/IIJD.2017.13.06.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.