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VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2021 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Esthetics of Orthodontic Appliances: Objective Evaluation by Spectrophotometry vs Subjective Evaluation Using the Visual Analog Scale Method

Naohiko Kawamura, Takashi Murakami, Kazuki Sobue, Shigemasa Kobayashi, Atsue Yamazaki, Yuya Nakao, Masahiro Iijima

Keywords : Esthetics, Orthodontic appliances, Orthodontic archwire, Orthodontic bracket, Spectrophotometry

Citation Information : Kawamura N, Murakami T, Sobue K, Kobayashi S, Yamazaki A, Nakao Y, Iijima M. Esthetics of Orthodontic Appliances: Objective Evaluation by Spectrophotometry vs Subjective Evaluation Using the Visual Analog Scale Method. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (10):1160-1166.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3210

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 07-02-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: In this study, we quantified the color of brackets and archwire appliances for an objective evaluation and investigated its relationship with subjective esthetic evaluation. Materials and methods: Five types of commercially available brackets (ceramic brackets C1, C2, and C3; plastic brackets P1 and P2) and three types of archwires (coated nickel-titanium archwires W1, W2, and W3) were used. The reflectance (%) and color (lightness: L*, hue: a*, b*) of each sample were quantified using a spectrophotometer (n = 5). Fifteen combinations of brackets and archwires were used. The esthetic evaluation was performed using the visual analog scale (VAS) method, and responses were obtained from 30 laypersons and 15 orthodontists. The mean VAS score was calculated, and the relationship between the reflectance and color of the bracket and archwire was discussed. Results: The reflectance and L* of the brackets showed significantly higher values for C3 and C1 than for the others and lower values for P1 and P2. The reflectance and L* of the archwire showed significant differences among all samples. There was a high positive correlation between the reflectance and L*. There were statistically significant positive correlations between the layperson and orthodontist groups, between the VAS score and reflectivity, and between VAS score and L*. Conclusion: Our results showed that as the lightness and reflectance of the brackets and archwires increased, the subjective evaluation concerning their esthetic value was higher. Clinical significance: It is extremely difficult to evaluate esthetics despite the fact that patients’ demands for esthetics have been increasing in recent years. If a method for evaluating esthetics is established, it should help in the development and selection of esthetic devices. The results of this study will facilitate the development of future study designs.

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