Aim and objective: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of two nonsurgical periodontal treatment modalities on clinical periodontal parameters and glycemic control.
Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with a sample of 64 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with chronic periodontitis. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received oral hygiene instructions (OHI) at baseline and each recall visit. Group II received one-stage full-mouth scaling and root planning (SRP) combining OHI. At baseline, third month, and sixth month the plaque index (PlI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were recorded and analyzed.
Results: After treatment, two groups showed significant differences for all parameters at both assessed times (p <0.05). The OHI alone only demonstrated a slight reduction in GI in third month, with no significant changes for PlI and PPD indexes. However, Group I recorded the increased HbA1c and CAL values at 6-month follow-up (p <0.05). The combination of OHI and SRP exhibited a significant improvement in all periodontal values (p <0.05). Also, the HbA1C levels of Group II showed a significant reduction after treatment and were lower than those of Group I.
Conclusions: Oral hygiene instructions only resulted in a better gingival condition of diabetic patients in the initial time. The nonsurgical periodontal therapy by combining SRP and OHI significantly improved both periodontal health and glycemic control.
Clinical significance: Diabetic patients should be supplied with an effective OHI modality and a professional dental debridement.
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