Citation Information :
Panneerselvam S, Theyagarajan R, Sekhar V, Mani E, Krishnamurthi I, Saketharaman P. Evaluation of Systemic Markers Related to Anemia in Aggressive Periodontitis Patients before and after Phase I Periodontal Therapy: An Interventional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (12):1413-1416.
Aim: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic markers related to anemia in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) patients before and after phase I therapy.
Materials and methods: Based on the inclusion criteria, 15 patients with GAgP were allocated to two groups, group A (before phase I periodontal therapy) and group B (after phase I periodontal therapy). After 3 months, clinical parameters and hematological parameters were reevaluated.
Results: The hematological parameters like hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were increased significantly after therapy in group B with a significant improvement in the plaque index score, gingival bleeding index score with a reduction of probing depth, and a gain in clinical attachment levels.
Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it could be concluded that GAgP was associated with reduced RBC parameters suggesting that it may tend toward anemia of chronic disease (ACD). Nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) not only reverses the periodontal health by reducing the inflammation but also improves the anemic status.
Clinical significance: Based on several studies, it was concluded that chronic periodontitis is associated with ACD. This study results indicate that like chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis is also associated with reduced RBC and Hb count suggesting the risk for ACD. So when a patient is diagnosed to have any chronic infectious disease that might lead to ACD, then it is mandatory to treat that particular disease in order to reduce the infection so as to reverse the anemic status of an individual.
Agarwal N, Kumar VS, Gujjari SA. Effect of periodontal therapy on hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels in chronic generalized periodontitis patients: an interventional study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2009;13(1):6. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.51887.
Hutter JW, Velden UV, Varoufaki A, et al. Lower numbers of erythrocytes and lower levels of hemoglobin in periodontitis patients compared to control subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28(10):930–936. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028010930.x.
Muppalla C, Ramakrishnan Theyagarajan GA, Mahendra J. Evaluation of systemic markers related to anemia in peripheral blood of patients with chronic generalised severe periodontitis: a comparative study. Int J Cur Res Rev 2016;8(9):59–63.
Li X, Kolltveit KM, Tronstad L, et al. Systemic diseases caused by oral infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000;13(4):547–558. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.13.4.547.
Malhotra R, Kapoor A, Grover V, et al. Effect of scaling and root planning on erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Am Dent Hyg Assoc 2012;86(3):195–203. PMID: 22947842.
Means RJ, Krantz SB. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic disease. Blood 1992;80(7):1639–1647. PMID: 1391934.
Santosh HN, Nagaraj T, Sasidaran A. Anemia of chronic disease: a comprehensive review. J Med Radiol Pathol Surg 2015;1(1):13–16. DOI: 10.15713/ins.jmrps.4.
Patel MD, Shakir QJ, Shetty A. Interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and anemia: a 6-month follow-up study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18(1):19. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.128194.
Gokhale SR, Sumanth S, Padhye AM. Evaluation of blood parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis for signs of anemia. J Periodontol 2010;81(8):1202–1206. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100079.
Naik V, Acharya A, Deshmukh VL, et al. Generalized, severe, chronic periodontitis is associated with anemia of chronic disease: a pilot study in urban, Indian males. J Investig Clin Dent 2010;1(2):139–143. DOI: 10.1111/j.2041-1626.2010.00028.x.
Pradeep AR, Anuj S, Raju A. Anemia of chronic disease and chronic periodontitis: does periodontal therapy have an effect on anemic status? J Periodontol 2011;82(3):388–394. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100336.
Anumolu VN, Srikanth A, Paidi K. Evaluation of the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters: a cross-sectional study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2016;20(3):265. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.176392.
Shetty MK, Thomas B, Shetty AV. Comparative evaluation of hemoglobin level in anemic patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment. J Interdisciplinary Dent 2014;4(1):24. DOI: 10.4103/2229-5194.135000.
Anand PS, Sagar DK, Ashok S, et al. Association of aggressive periodontitis with reduced erythrocyte counts and reduced hemoglobin levels. J Periodontal Res 2014;49(6):719–728. DOI: 10.1111/jre.12154.
Christan C, Dietrich T, Hägewald S, et al. White blood cell count in generalized aggressive periodontitis after non-surgical therapy. J Clin Periodontol 2002;29(3):201–206. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2002.290303.x.
Cavill I, Auerbach M, Bailie GR, et al. Iron and the anemia of chronic disease: a review and strategic recommendations. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22(4):731–737. DOI: 10.1185/030079906X100096.
Yamamoto T, Tsuneishi M, Furuta M, et al. Relationship between decrease of erythrocyte count and progression of periodontal disease in a rural Japanese population. J Periodontol 2011;82(1): 106–113. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100211.