The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2021 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dental Hygiene Students in Saudi Arabia: A Nation-wide Study

Mushir Mulla

Keywords : Anxiety, COVID-19, Dental hygiene student, Psychological impact, Saudi Arabia

Citation Information : Mulla M. Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dental Hygiene Students in Saudi Arabia: A Nation-wide Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2021; 22 (12):1426-1433.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3249

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 10-05-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: Worldwide healthcare professionals are experiencing constant stress during their day-to-day work due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Students’ anxiety tendency has also been increased due to the disturbance of education. This study aims to evaluate the anxiety and depression levels of dental hygiene students in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19 lockdown period. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the dental hygiene students in Saudi Arabia to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. Questionnaire was distributed to the students, which consisted questions regarding demographics, knowledge, and fear related to COVID-19 and validated self-reported anxiety screening scale (GAD-7), to assess the psychological impact. All the data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Students from King Abdul Aziz University and Prince Sattam University showed statistically higher anxiety score when comparing the GAD-7 questions. Students whose parents were unemployed during pandemic and the students from rural area had statistically greater anxiety level when compared to others. Also, anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher among students who slightly feared contacting the disease because of their profession. Conclusion: The present results demonstrate that dental hygiene students suffered from some form of anxiety ranging from mild anxiety to severe anxiety, reporting that they frequently felt nervous and were scared that something terrible would happen. Psychological well-being of healthcare professionals is necessary for the optimal treatment of patients. Clinical significance: Anxiety is considered as an important factor for healthcare students that may influence negatively on their personal and academic life. Thus appropriate assessment and offering immediate treatment will prove beneficial to prevent serious consequences.


PDF Share
  1. COVID-19 and conflict: seven trends to watch-special briefing 4/the COVID-19 pandemic and deadly conflict, 24 March 2020. Available from: https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/sb4-covid-19-and-conflict-seven-trends-watch [Accessed on April 20, 2020].
  2. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;382(8):727–733. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.
  3. Mahase E. China coronavirus: WHO declares international emergency as death toll exceeds 200. British Medical Journal 2020;368:m408. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m408.
  4. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, et al. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet 2020;395(10223):470–473. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9.
  5. Pan A, Liu L, Wang C, et al. Association of public health interventions with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. Journal of the American Medical Association 2020;323(19):1915–1923. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.6130.
  6. Maunder R. The experience of the 2003 SARS outbreak as a traumatic stress among frontline healthcare workers in Toronto: lessons learned. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 2004;359(1447):1117–1125. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1483.
  7. Greenberg N, Docherty M, Gnanapragasam S, et al. Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. British Medical Journal 2020;368:m1211. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m1211.
  8. Al-Rabiaah A, Temsah MH, Al-Eyadhy AA, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) associated stress among medical students at a university teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health 2020;13(5):687–691. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.01.005.
  9. Wong TW, Gao Y, Tam WWS. Anxiety among university students during the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong. Stress Health 2007;23(1): 31–35. DOI: 10.1002/smi.1116.
  10. Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, et al. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res 2020;287:112934. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934.
  11. Saddik B, Hussein A, Sharif-Askari F, et al. Increased level of anxiety among medical and non-medical university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Arab Emirates. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020;13:2395. DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S273333.
  12. Michaels D, Wagner GR. Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) and worker safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of the American Medical Association 2020;324(14):1389–1390. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.16343.
  13. Volgenant CMC, de Soet JJ. Cross-transmission in the dental office: does this make you ill? Curr Oral Health Rep 2018;5(4):221–228. DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0201-3.
  14. Halboub ES, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Jamaei AA, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control among dental students at Sana'a University, Yemen. J Int Oral Health 2015;7(5):15–19. PMID: 26028896.
  15. Sahu P. Closure of universities due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus 2020;12:e7541. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.7541.
  16. Siddhartha S, Adil AH, Mulla M, et al. Usage of social media among undergraduate university students. Eur J Mol Clin Med 2020; 7(8):1605–1617. https://ejmcm.com/pdf_4335_715ec1cf43d58db0b2d879aef88af541.html.
  17. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, et al. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166(10):1092–1097. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092.
  18. Basudan S, Binanzan N, Alhassan A. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students. Int J Med Educ 2017;8:179–186. DOI: 10.5116/ijme.5910.b961.
  19. Islam S, Akter R, Sikder T, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with depression and anxiety among first-year university students in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. Int J Ment Health Addict 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00242-y.
  20. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines: Management of physical health conditions in adults with severe mental disorders. 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/guidelines_severe_mental_disorders_web_note_2018/en/ [Accessed February 15, 2020].
  21. Rotenstein LS, Ramos MA, Torre M, et al. Prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation among medical students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 2016;316(21):2214–2236. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.17324.
  22. Abdel Rahman AG, Al Hashim BN, Al Hiji NK, et al. Stress among medical Saudi students at College of Medicine, King Faisal University. J Prev Med Hyg 2013;54(4):195–199. PMID: 24779279.
  23. Ali Taha A, AA El-shereef E, Mohammed Abdullah TI, et al. Social anxiety disorder and its correlates among female students at Taif University, Saudi Arabia. Res Psychol Behav Sci 2017;5:50–56. DOI: 10.12691/rpbs-5-2-3.
  24. Hakami RM, Mahfouz MS, Adawi AM, et al. Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. Ment Illn 2018;9(2):7274. DOI: 10.4081/mi.2017.7274.
  25. Mulla M. Impact of oral diseases and conditions on oral health-related quality of life: a narrative review of studies conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cureus 2021;13(9):e18358. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.18358.
  26. Rutter LA, Brown TA. Psychometric properties of the generalized anxiety disorder scale-7 (GAD-7) in outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2017;39(1):140–146. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-016-9571-9.
  27. Jordan P, Shedden-Mora MC, Löwe B. Psychometric analysis of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in primary care using modern item response theory. PloS One 2017;12(8):e0182162. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182162.
  28. Löwe B, Decker O, Müller S, et al. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Med Care 2008;46(3):266–274. DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e318160d093.
  29. Terrill AL, Hartoonian N, Beier M, et al. The 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale as a tool for measuring generalized anxiety in multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care 2015;17(2):49–56. DOI: 10.7224/1537-2073.2014-008.
  30. Seo J-G, Park S-P. Validation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and GAD-2 in patients with migraine. J Headache Pain 2015;16(1):97. DOI: 10.1186/s10194-015-0583-8.
  31. Mayer FB, Santos IS, Silveira PS, et al. Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study. BMC Med Educ 2016;16(1):282. DOI: 10.1186/s12909-016-0791-1.
  32. Yusoff MSB, Abdul Rahim AF, Baba AA, et al. The impact of medical education on psychological health of students: a cohort study. Psychol Health Med 2013;18(4):420–430. DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2012.740162.
  33. Hope V, Henderson M. Medical student depression, anxiety and distress outside North America: a systematic review. Med Educ 2014;48(10):963–979. DOI: 10.1111/medu.12512.
  34. Mulla M, Moothedath M, Tareen SU, et al. Assessment of traumatic injury awareness in school teachers in Saudi Arabia. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 2021;12(8):1939–1944. https://www.tojqi.net/index.php/journal/article/view/4305/2962.
  35. Chernomas WM, Shapiro C. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students. Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh 2013;10(1):255–266. DOI: 10.1515/ijnes-2012-0032.
  36. Wang G, Zhang Y, Zhao J, et al. Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet 2020;395(10228):945–947. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20) 30547-X.
  37. Liu ZH, Zhao YJ, Feng Y, et al. Migrant workers in China need emergency psychological interventions during the COVID-19 outbreak. Global Health 2020;16(1):75. DOI: 10.1186/s12992-020-00608-w.
  38. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol 2014;28(5):403–439. DOI: 10.1177/0269881114525674.
  39. Franko DL, Striegel-Moore RH, Bean J, et al. Self-reported symptoms of depression in late adolescence to early adulthood: a comparison of African-American and Caucasian females. J Adolesc Health 2005;37(6):526–529. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.08.028.
  40. Karayürek F, Çebi AT, Gülses A, et al. The impact of COVID-19 vaccination on anxiety levels of Turkish dental professionals and their attitude in clinical care: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(19):10373. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph 181910373.
  41. Hurst CS, Baranik LE, Daniel F. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research. Work Stress 2013;29(4):275–285. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2465.
  42. Boyraz G, Legros DN, Tigershtrom A. COVID-19 and traumatic stress: the role of perceived vulnerability, COVID-19-related worries, and social isolation. J Anxiety Disord 2020;76:102307. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102307.
  43. Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(3):e14. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.