The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 3 ( May-June, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Trichloroacetic Acid Hydrogel on Self-Etch Adhesive Bond Strength to Dental Tissues

Maryam Khoroushi, Kamyar Fathpour

Citation Information : Khoroushi M, Fathpour K. Effect of Trichloroacetic Acid Hydrogel on Self-Etch Adhesive Bond Strength to Dental Tissues. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14 (3):375-380.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1331

Published Online: 01-10-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a soft tissue cauterizing agent applied to gingival margins prior to cervical tooth-colored restorations. The present in vitro study evaluated the effects of two different concentrations of TCA hydrogel as a hemostatic/preconditioning agent on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-etch adhesive to tooth structures.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six flat enamel and 36 flat dentin surfaces were prepared using human molars; each group was subdivided into three subgroups (n = 12). The groups were made ready as follows: In groups 1 (E1 and D1), the enamel (E) and dentin (D) surfaces were designated as control groups and remained intact. In groups 2 (E2 and D2), 35% TCA gel was applied to enamel and dentin surfaces for 30 seconds. In groups 3 (E3 and D3), 50% TCA gel was applied to enamel and dentin surfaces for 30 seconds. Clearfil SE Bond and Z100 composite resin were applied to the surfaces according to manufacturers¡¦ instructions. After 24 hours of incubation and thermocycling, the composite cylinders underwent an SBS test in a DARTEC test machine. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Scheffé's test (α = 0.05).


The mean SBS ± SD in the study groups were 34.73 ± 5.66, 35.32 ± 7.3, 23.75 ± 9.67, 20.94 ± 9.84, 19.32 ± 6.20, 23.50 ± 6.63 MPa in the E1, E2, E3, D1, D2 and D3 groups, respectively. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the SBS values of enamel groups (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the dentin groups (p = 0.425).


Application of 35 and 50% concentrations of TCA to dentin had no detrimental effect on the bond produced by two-step self-etch adhesive under study; however, application of only 35% TCA to enamel did not result in a detrimental effect on the same adhesive.

How to cite this article

Fathpour K, Khoroushi M. Effect of Trichloroacetic Acid Hydrogel on Self-Etch Adhesive Bond Strength to Dental Tissues. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14(3):375-380.

PDF Share
  1. Tissue management needs for adhesive dentistry now and in the future. Dent Clin North Am 1998;42(4):595-606.
  2. Over-etching effects on micro-tensile bond strength and failure patterns for two dentin bonding systems. J Dent 2002;30(2-3):99-105.
  3. Effect of irrigation solutions on dentin bonding agents and restorative shear bond strength. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87(6):628-632.
  4. Bond strengths of resin cements to astringent-contaminated dentin. Oper Dent 2009;34(4):415-422.
  5. Bond strengths of two adhesive systems to dentin contaminated with a hemostatic agent. Oper Dent 2007;32(4):399-405.
  6. Review and survey of medicaments used with gingival retraction cords. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53(4):525-531.
  7. Smear layer instability caused by hemostatic agents. J Prosthet Dent 1996;76(5):477-482.
  8. Bonding to dentin with a self-etching primer: The effect of smear layers. Dent Mater 2001;17(2):122-126.
  9. Aggressiveness of contemporary selfetching systems. I: Depth of penetration beyond dentin smear layers. Dent Mater 2001;17(4):296-308.
  10. Effect of trichloroacetic acid on the microhardness and surface morphology of human dentin and enamel. Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8(1):16-20.
  11. Further clinical procedures related to the fabrication of rigid restorations. In: Mount GJ, Hume WR, editors. Preservation and restoration of tooth structure. London: Mosby 1998:175-184.
  12. Glass-ionomer restorations. In: Mount GJ, Hume WR, editors. Preservation and restoration of tooth structure. London: Mosby 1998:37-44.
  13. Effect of smear layer thickness and pH of self-etching adhesive systems on the bond strength and gap formation to dentin. J Adhes Dent 2005;7(2):117-126.
  14. Aggressiveness of contemporary selfetching adhesives. Part II: Etching effects on unground enamel. Dent Mater 2001;17(5):430-444.
  15. Microtensile bond strength of an etch and rinse and self-etch adhesive to enamel and dentin as a function of surface treatment. Oper Dent 2003;28(5):647-660.
  16. Moisture spectrum of demineralized dentin for different solvent-based adhesive system. J Adhes Dent 2003;5(3):183-192.
  17. Relation between water content in acetone/alcohol-based primer and interfacial ultrastructure. J Dent 1998;26(2):147-156.
  18. Effect of dentin conditioners on the microtensile bond strength of a conventional and a self-etching primer adhesive system. Dent Mater 2005;21(2):103-109.
  19. Effect of phosphoric acid etching prior to self-etching primer application on adhesion of resin composite to enamel and dentin. Am J Dent 2002;15(5):305-308.
  20. Effect of EDTA conditioning on bond strength to bovine dentin promoted by four current adhesives. Am J Dent 2003;16(6):395-400.
  21. The effect of trichloroacetic acid as a hemostatic and etching agent on the morphological characteristics and shear bond strength of resin composite to enamel. Oper Dent 2010 Mar-Apr;35(2):187-193.
  22. Effect of thrichloracetic-acid as an etching agent on composite-resin bond strength to dental tissues. Res J Biol Sci 2008;3(11):1320-1323.
  23. Three-year clinical performance of a HEMA-free one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions. Eur J Oral Sci 2011;119(6):511-116.
  24. The role of etching in bonding to enamel: A comparison of self-etching and etch-andrinse adhesive systems. Dent Mater 2009;25(11):1459-1467.
  25. Effect of acid-etching on the enamel bond of two self-etching systems. J Adhes Dent 2003;5(2):107-112.
  26. Invasive cervical resorption following trauma. Aust Endod J 1999;25(2):79-85.
  27. One-day bonding effectiveness of new selfetch adhesives to bur-cut enamel and dentin. Oper Dent 2005;30(1):39-49.
  28. In vitro shear bond strength of self-etching adhesives in comparison to 4th and 5th generation adhesives. J Adhes Dent 2004;6(4):293-299.
  29. Bond strength of composite to astringent-contaminated dentin using selfetching adhesives. Am J Dent 2005;18(3):168-172.
  30. Effect of ViscoStat and ViscoStat Plus on composite shear bond strength in the presence and absence of blood. J Adhes Dent 2006;8(6):363-366.
  31. Effect of previous treatments on bond strength of two self-etching adhesive systems to dental substrate. J Adhes Dent 2007;9(3):291-296.
  32. Disturbance of the dentinal smear layer by acidic hemostatic agents. J Prosthet Dent 1994 Jul;72(1):4-7.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.