The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Assessment of 2D:4D in Subjects with Anteroposterior Mandibular Dysplasia

Sridhar Premkumar, Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy

Citation Information : Premkumar S, Gurumurthy B. Assessment of 2D:4D in Subjects with Anteroposterior Mandibular Dysplasia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14 (4):582-585.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1367

Published Online: 01-10-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



To compare 2D:4D ratio which is determined by testosterone levels with patients having orthognathic, retrognathic and prognathic mandibles.

Materials and methods

The study was performed at Chennai, on 320 subjects of which, 60 subjects (32 males and 28 females) had retrognathic mandible; 55 subjects (25 males and 30 females) had prognathic mandible and 205 subjects (98 males and 107 females) had normal mandible. All the subjects had a normal maxilla and were in the age group of 18 to 25 years. 2D:4D ratio was determined using the photocopies of the ventral surface of right hand made with vernier calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Student's t- test, ANOVA test and TukeyHSD test.


(i) Low 2D:4D is seen in subjects with mandibular prognathism, (ii) Among females, low 2D:4D is seen only in prognathic mandible.


These findings highlight the fact that testosterone plays an important role in mandibular growth. Thus 2D:4D, a least invasive and reproducible procedure can be used as an early marker for mandibular progathism, and as a diagnostic tool in correlating the mandibular growth with causal relations between hormones and craniofacial development.

How to cite this article

Premkumar S, Gurumurthy B. Assessment of 2D:4D in Subjects with Anteroposterior Mandibular Dysplasia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):582-585.

PDF Share
  1. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Hum Dev 2004;77:23-28.
  2. Masculinized finger length patterns in human males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm Behav 2002;42:380-386.
  3. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinising hormone and oestrogen. Hum Reprod 1998;13:3000-3004.
  4. The 2nd to 4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences and reproductive success: evidence for sexually antagonistic genes. Evol Hum Behav 2000;21:163-183.
  5. Regulation of interleukin-6, osteoclastogenesis, and bone mass by androgens. The role of the androgen receptor. J Clin Invest 1995;95:2886-2895.
  6. Immunocytochemical identification of androgen receptor in mouse osteoclast-like multinucleated cells. Calcif Tissue Int 1994;54:325-326.
  7. Breadth of the mandibular condyle affected by disturbances of the sex hormones in ovariectomized and orchiectomized mice. Clin Orthod Res 2001b;4:172-176.
  8. Influence of oestrogen and androgen on modelling of the mandibular condylar bone in ovariectomized and orchiectomized growing mice. Arch Oral Biol 2001a;46:57-65.
  9. Gender differences in class III malocclusion. Angle Orthod 2005 Jul;75(4):510-520.
  10. Left-handedness: association with immune disease, migraine and developmental learning disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1982;79:5097-5100.
  11. Digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts facial, but not voice or body odour, attractiveness in men. Proceedings of The Royal Society Biological Sciences, published online 20 April 2011.
  12. Effect of lowdose testosterone treatment on craniofacial growth in boys with delayed puberty. Eur J Orthod 1999;21:137-143.
  13. Early prenatal attainment of adult metacarpal-phalangeal rankings and proportions. Am J Phys Anthropol 1975;43:327-332.
  14. Digit ratio: A pointer to fertility, behavior, and health. Cambridge, MA: Rutgers University Press 2002.
  15. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and testosterone levels in normal males. Am J Phys Anthropol 1993;90:185-198.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.