The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2013 ) > List of Articles


An in vivo Evaluation of Different Methods of Working Length Determination

Nitin Shah, Jyoti Mandlik, Kalpana Pawar, Paras Gupta, Shoaib Ali Shaik

Citation Information : Shah N, Mandlik J, Pawar K, Gupta P, Shaik SA. An in vivo Evaluation of Different Methods of Working Length Determination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14 (4):644-648.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1378

Published Online: 01-12-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the ability of digital tactile, digital radiographic and electronic methods to determine reliability in locating the apical constriction.

Materials and methods

Informed consent was obtained from patients scheduled for orthodontic extraction. The teeth were anesthetized, isolated and accessed. The canals were negotiated, pulp chamber and canals were irrigated and pulp was extirpated. The working length was then evaluated for each canal by digital tactile sensation, an electronic apex locator (The Root ZX) and digital radiography. The readings were then compared with post-extraction working length measurements.


The percentage accuracy indicated that EAL method (Root ZX) shows maximum accuracy, i.e. 99.85% and digital tactile and digital radiographic method (DDR) showed 98.20 and 97.90% accuracy respectively.

Clinical significance

Hence, it can be concluded that the EAL method (Root ZX) produced most reliable results for determining the accurate working length.

How to cite this article

Mandlik J, Shah N, Pawar K, Gupta P, Singh S, Shaik SA. An in vivo Evaluation of Different Methods of Working Length Determination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):644-648.

PDF Share
  1. Electronic apex locator. DCNA 2004;48:35-54.
  2. The cementodentinal canal junction, the apical foramen, and the apical constriction. Evaluation by optical microscopy. J Endod 2003;29(3):214-219.
  3. The position and topography of the apical canal constriction and apical foramen. Int Endod J 1984;17:192-198.
  4. New electronic canal measuring device based on the ratio method. J Endod 1994;20(3):111-114.
  5. Fully automatic root canal measuring device. Operation instructions. Tustin 1994;4-7.
  6. An in vivo comparative study of two apex locators. J Endod 1994;2012:576-579.
  7. An in vivo comparison of two frequency-based electronic apex locators. J Endod 2003;29(8):497-500.
  8. The relationship of the apical foramen to the anatomic apex of the tooth root. Oral Surg 1972;34(2):262-268.
  9. Methodological considerations in the determination of working length. Int Endod J 2001;34:371-376.
  10. Radiovisiography for imaging root canals: an in vitro comparison with conventional radiography. Quintessence Int 1990;21:789-794.
  11. Radiovisiography versus conventional radiography for detection of small instruments in endodontic length determination, I: In vivo evaluation. J Endod 1995;29(10):516-520.
  12. Endodontic practice, 11th ed. Lea and Fabiger, 1988.
  13. Effect of using electronic apex locators on selected endodontic treatment parameters. J Endod 2000;26(6):364-367.
  14. The effect of an apex locator on exposure to radiation during endodontic therapy. J Endod 2002;28(7):524-526.
  15. Clinical investigations of measuring working length of root canals with an electronic device and with digital tactile sense. J Am Dent Assoc 1975;10:379-387.
  16. Predictive value of tactile sense in electronic endodontometry. J Endod 1989;9(2):25-39.
  17. Comparison of radiographic and electronic working lengths. J Endod 1996;22(4):173-176.
  18. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals. J Endod 1999;25(4):260-263.
  19. Measurement of the distance between the minor foramen and the anatomic apex by digital and conventional radiography. J Endod 2002;28(2):125-126.
  20. The ability of root ZX apex locator to reduce the frequency of overestimated radiographic working length. J Endod 2002;28(2):116-119.
  21. Accuracy of a new apex locator: an in vitro study. Int Endod J 2002;35:186-192.
  22. A SEM study of in vivo accuracy of the Root ZX electronic apex locator. J Endod 1998;24(6):438.
  23. In vitro evaluation of the ability of three apex locators to determine the working length during retreatment. J Endod 2005;31(9):676-678.
  24. Ex vivo accuracy of three electronic apex locators; Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex locator and Propex. Int Endod J 2006;39:408-414.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.