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VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2013 ) > List of Articles


An in vitro Study to Compare the Effectiveness of F-file with Ultrasonically Activated K-file to Remove Smear Layer by using a Scanning Electron Microscope

B Shiva Kumar, Suresh Shenvi

Citation Information : Kumar BS, Shenvi S. An in vitro Study to Compare the Effectiveness of F-file with Ultrasonically Activated K-file to Remove Smear Layer by using a Scanning Electron Microscope. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14 (5):825-829.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1410

Published Online: 01-02-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the F-file with an ultrasonically activated #15 K-file in removing the smear layer after biomechanical instrumentation along with irrigation of Saline, NaOCl and with or without a flush of EDTA.

Materials and methods

Sixty decoronated human premolar teeth with a single canal were instrumented with ProTaper using S1, S2 and F1 series to produce the smear layer and randomly divided into two groups. Group A used Ultrasonics and group B used F-file for activation of irrigants respectively. Each group was further divided in to three subgroups consisting of 10 teeth in each as I, II, III consisting of saline, NaOCl, NaOCl and EDTA as irrigants respectively. SEM micrographs were taken and amount of smear layer removal was analyzed by using Chi-square statistics tests.


Most effective smear layer removal was seen only when EDTA was used. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups A and B in removal of smear layer.


There was no increase in smear layer between use of F-file when compared with the Ultrasonically activated K-file.

Clinical significance

The F-file although does not have a superior efficacy than the ultrasonics in removal of smear layer from root canals but when used along with EDTA, can be an effective alternative for the dentists who are unable to bear the initial setup cost of ultrasonics.

How to cite this article

Shenvi S, Kumar BS. An in vitro Study to Compare the Effectiveness of F-file with Ultrasonically Activated K-file to Remove Smear Layer by using a Scanning Electron Microscope. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(5):825-829.

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