The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 8 ( August, 2022 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Anticancer Effects of Carica papaya L. and Benzyl Isothiocyanate on an Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line: An In Vitro Study

Saranya Varadarajan, Balaji Thodur Madapusi, Malathi Narasimhan, Chamundeeswari Durai Pandian, Sakthisekaran Dhanapal

Keywords : Apoptosis, Benzyl isothiocyanate, Carica papaya, Oral squamous cell carcinoma

Citation Information : Varadarajan S, Madapusi BT, Narasimhan M, Pandian CD, Dhanapal S. Anticancer Effects of Carica papaya L. and Benzyl Isothiocyanate on an Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (8):839-844.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3384

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 29-11-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: The study aimed to assess the anticancer effects of leaves of the male and female plant and seeds Carica papaya L. extract and the active compound benzyl isothiocyanate on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line. Materials and methods: Extracts of CO2 strain C. papaya L. seeds were prepared using water, ethanol, and ethanol:water by maceration, and benzyl isothiocyanate was quantified. Alkaloid fractions of leaves of male and female plants of C. papaya L. were prepared and quantified. The anticancer effects of the test substances on the SCC-25 cell line were assessed by MTT, apoptosis assay, cell cycle analysis, and determination of mitochondrial membrane potential. Results: The ethanol:water extract of C. papaya L. (seeds) demonstrated the highest quantity of benzyl isothiocyanate. Male plant leaves demonstrated greater alkaloid content. The leaves of the male plant exhibited apoptosis induction and S-phase arrest, whereas the leaves of the female plant and seeds of C. papaya L. demonstrated G2M-phase arrest and apoptosis induction. Conclusion: C. papaya L. and benzyl isothiocyanate demonstrated anticancer effects. There was a difference in the anticancer effects of leaves of male and female plants of C. papaya L. Clinical significance: The anticancer effects of papaya leaves and seeds could be further explored to develop an adjunct therapy for oral cancer to improve prognosis and reduce recurrence rates.


PDF Share
  1. Johnson NW, Jayasekara P, Amarasinghe AAHK. Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions of the oral cavity: Epidemiology and aetiology. Periodontol 2000;57(1):19–37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2011.00401.x.
  2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136(5):E359–E386. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29210.
  3. Al-Jaber A, Al-Nasser L, El-Metwally A. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries. Saudi Med J 2016;37(3):249–255. DOI: 10.15537/smj.2016.3.11388.
  4. Shukla S, Shukla S. Oral cancer—Curse, cure and challenge. Indian J Surg 2012;74(6):437–439. DOI: 10.1007/s12262-012-0769-0.
  5. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, et al. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 2006;160(1):1–40. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2005.12.009
  6. Di Cosola M, Cazzolla AP, Charitos IA, et al. Candida albicans and oral carcinogenesis. A brief review. J Fungi 2021;7(6):476. DOI: 10.3390/jof7060476.
  7. Capote-Moreno A, Brabyn P, Muñoz-Guerra MF, et al. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: epidemiological study and risk factor assessment based on a 39-year series. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020;49(12):1525–1534. DOI:10.1016/j.ijom.2020.03.009.
  8. Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Patel JA. Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Nat Prod Radiance 2008;7(4):364–373.
  9. Jindal KK, Singh RN. Sex determination in vegetative seedlings of Carica papaya by phenolic tests. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 1976;4(1):33–39. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4238(76)90062-5.
  10. Pablito M Magdalita, Charles P Mercado. Determining the Sex of Papaya for Improved Production (Book, 2003) (WorldCat.Org). Food and Fertilizer Technology Center; 2003. https://www.worldcat.org/title/determining-the-sex-of-papaya-for-improved-production/oclc/768135352 (accessed November 13, 2020).
  11. Do Thi Hoà Vien, Do Thi Thao. Preliminary Findings on Anticancer and Lymphocyte Stimulated Activities of Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Vietnam Carica papaya Leaves 2013.
  12. Kim EJ, Hong JE, Eom SJ, et al. Oral administration of benzyl-isothiocyanate inhibits solid tumor growth and lung metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells in BALB/c mice. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011;130(1):61–71. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-010-1299-8.
  13. Wagner H, Bladt S. Plant Drug Analysis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg; 1996. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-00574-9.
  14. Narasimhan S, Vijayakumar MM, Shanta. A new spray reagent for detection and differentiation of sulfur compounds in plant extracts. J Planar Chromatogr Mod TLC. Published Online 2003.
  15. Carmichael J, Mitchell J, DeGraff W, et al. Chemosensitivity testing of human lung cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Br J Cancer 1988;57(6):540–547. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.1988.125.
  16. Kasibhatla S. Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AO/EB) Staining to Detect Apoptosis. CSH Protoc 2006;(3):pdb.prot4493. DOI: 10.1101/pdb.prot4493.
  17. Kotamraju S, Konorev EA, Joseph J, et al. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes is ameliorated by nitrone spin traps and ebselen. J Biol Chem 2000;275(43):33585–33592. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M003890200.
  18. Schönthal AH. Checkpoint Controls and Cancer. Vol. 281. Humana Press; 2004. DOI: 10.1385/1592598110.
  19. Salido M, Gonzalez JL, Vilches J. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential is inhibited by bombesin in etoposide-induced apoptosis in PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6(4):1292–1299. DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0681.
  20. Mohan K, Jeyachandran R. Alkaloids as anticancer agents. Ann Phytomed 2012;1(1):46–53. Accessed date: May 21, 2012.
  21. Gupta A, Wambebe C, Parsons DL. Central and cardiovascular effects of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Carica papaya. Int J Crude Drug Res 1990;28(4):257–266. DOI: 10.3109/13880209009082830.
  22. Govindachari TR, Pai BR, Narasimhan NS. pseudoCarpaine, a new alkaloid from Carica papaya L. J Chem Soc 1954:1847. DOI: 10.1039/jr9540001847.
  23. Nakamura Y, Yoshimoto M, Murata Y, et al. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55(11):4407–4413. DOI: 10.1021/jf070159w.
  24. Hecht SS, Kenney PM., Wang M, et al. Benzyl isothiocyanate: An effective inhibitor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tumorigenesis in A/J mouse lung. Cancer Lett 2002;187(1–2):87–94. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3835(02)00410-X.
  25. Huang SH, Wu LW, Huang AC, et al. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human melanoma A375.S2 cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and both mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-mediated multiple signaling pathways. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60(2):665–675. DOI: 10.1021/jf204193v.
  26. Liu KC, Huang YAT, Wu PP, et al. The roles of AIF and Endo G in the apoptotic effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on du 145 human prostate cancer cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. Int J Oncol 2011;38(3):787–796. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2010.894.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.