Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the embryonic toxicology of ginger- and clove-mediated titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs)-based dental varnish with zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Materials and methods: Dental varnish was formulated using ginger, clove extract, and titanium dioxide NPs followed by the introduction of this test solution at concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 µL along with a control group with medium zebrafish embryos into a 6-well culture plate. After 2 hours of incubation, the embryos of zebrafish were tested and analyzed for hatchability and mortality rate using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software.
Results: The hatching rate of zebrafish embryos was greatest at 1 µL in a declining order when compared to the control group, whereas the mortality rate was greatest at 16 µL compared to the control group. On intergroup comparisons, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has revealed a significance (p = 0.00) between the concentrations and testing parameters such as hatchability and mortality.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the zebrafish embryos exposed acutely to TiO2 NPs at experimental doses have shown significant changes in their rate of deformity and capacity to hatch at 16- and 1-µL concentrations of the dental varnish formulation, respectively. Furthermore, studies are required to prove the efficacy of the formulation.
Clinical significance: Research and development of new formulations of various dental products is an ongoing process. One such segment is dental varnishes, wherein herbal resources and NPs mediated for improved efficacy against dental caries is an emerging alternative aiming to counteract the limitations posed by the traditional agents. To develop a new formulation of dental varnish, which is herbal resourced and NPs mediated, for an improved efficacy against dental caries.
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