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VOLUME 23 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors that Lead Individuals to Initiate and/or Maintain Betel Quid Chewing in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Arvind Muthukrishnan, Ravleen Nagi, L Ashok, GP Sujatha, Roopa S Rao, Surendra Lakshminarayana, Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil, Shankargouda Patil

Keywords : Addiction, Areca nut, Behavior, Betel quid, Habituation, Psycho-oncology, Psychosocial determinants

Citation Information : Muthukrishnan A, Nagi R, Ashok L, Sujatha G, Rao RS, Lakshminarayana S, Pandarathodiyil AK, Patil S. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors that Lead Individuals to Initiate and/or Maintain Betel Quid Chewing in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2022; 23 (12):1267-1279.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3450

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Background: Betel quid (BQ) is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance and its use is highly prevalent among southeast Asian countries due to the influence of psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors. As a result, even young children and women are becoming addicted and find it difficult to achieve long-term abstinence. Systematic research addressing the influence of behavioral and psychosocial factors on BQ chewing is scarce, hence pointing to the need for understanding the interplay of these factors to develop tailored intervention strategies for BQ cessation. Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to assess various behavioral and psychosocial risk factors from pre-existing literature that lead individuals to initiate and/or maintain BQ chewing in developed and developing countries. Materials and methods: The electronic retrieval systems and databases PUBMED [MEDLINE], EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and SCIENCE DIRECT were searched independently by two authors for relevant articles from January 2011 to July 2021 using combinations of keywords. Primary studies published in English focusing on the behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for BQ chewing were included. Results: Out of the initial 264 articles searched, 12 articles met the selection criteria. Included studies addressed the influence of behavioral and psychosocial factors toward the initiation and/or maintenance of BQ chewing. Included studies reported that dependent BQ was not able to quit BQ chewing due to habituation, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms. Few social BQ chewers in Southeast Asian countries were not willing to initiate quitting as they considered AN as an important social and cultural identifier and claimed that they could not resist chewing in a peer group, and it has become part of their social life. Conclusion: In the future, studies should take into consideration behavioral and psychosocial risk factors, which are major barriers toward successful quitting. These factors should be integrated into areca nut cessation guidelines, and there is a need to develop more comprehensive culture-specific intervention approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.

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