The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2014 ) > List of Articles


Influence of Occlusal Contact Area on Cusp Deflection and Stress Distribution

Anna Karina Figueiredo Costa, Thaty Aparecida Xavier, Tarcisio José Arruda Paes-Junior, Oswaldo Daniel Andreatta-Filho, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges

Citation Information : Costa AK, Xavier TA, Paes-Junior TJ, Andreatta-Filho OD, Borges AL. Influence of Occlusal Contact Area on Cusp Deflection and Stress Distribution. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15 (6):699-704.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1602

Published Online: 01-04-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal contact area for loading on the cuspal deflection and stress distribution in a first premolar restored with a high elastic modulus restorative material.

Materials and methods

The Rhinoceros 4.0 software was used for modeling the three-dimensional geometries of dental and periodontal structures and the inlay restoration. Thus, two different models, intact and restored teeth with three occlusal contact areas, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 mm2, on enamel at the occlusal surface of buccal and lingual cusps. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed with the program ANSYS (Workbench 13.0), which generated a mesh with tetrahedral elements with greater refinement in the regions of interest, and was constrained at the bases of cortical and trabecular bone in all axis and loaded with 100 N normal to each contact area.


To analysis of maximum principal stress, the smaller occlusal contact area showed greater compressive stress in region of load application for both the intact and inlay restored tooth. However, tensile stresses at the occlusal isthmus were similar for all three tested occlusal contact areas (60 MPa). To displacement of the cusps was higher for teeth with inlay (0.46- 0.48 mm). For intact teeth, the smaller contact area showed greater displacement (0.10 mm). For teeth with inlays, the displacement of the cusps were similar in all types of occlusal area.


Cuspal displacement was higher in the restored tooth when compared to the intact tooth, but there were no significant variations even with changes in the occlusal contact area.

Relevance clinical

Occlusal contacts have a great influence on the positioning of teeth being able to maintain the position and stability of the mandible. Axial loads would be able to generate more uniform stress at the root presenting a greater concentration of load application in the point and the occlusal surface. Thus, is necessary to analyze the relationship between these occlusal contacts as dental wear and subsequent occlusal interferences.

How to cite this article

Costa AKF, Xavier TA, Paes-Junior TJA, Andreatta-Filho OD, Borges ALS. Influence of Occlusal Contact Area on Cusp Deflection and Stress Distribution. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):699-704.

PDF Share
  1. Bite force and state of dentition. Acta Odontol Scand 1977;35(6):297-303.
  2. Occlusal contact area, occlusal pressure, bite force, and masticatory efficiency in patients with anterior disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26(11):906-911.
  3. In vivo evaluation of occlusalcontact area and maximum bite force in patients with various types of implant-supported prostheses. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013 Jan 9. [Epub ahead of print].
  4. Attaining harmonic occlusion through visualized strain analysis. J Prosthet Dent 1981 Dec;46(6):615-622.
  5. Reduction in tooth stiffness as a result of endodontic and restorative procedures. J Endod. 1989 Nov;15(11):512-516.
  6. Cuspal deflection in molars in relation to endodontic and restorative procedures. J Endod 1995 Feb;21(2):57-61.
  7. Fracture strength of human teeth with cavity preparations. J Prosthet Dent 1980 Apr;43(4):419-422.
  8. Stainless steel bands in endodontics: effects on cuspal flexure and fracture resistance. Int Endod J 2002 May;35(5):467-471.
  9. The effect of amalgam bonding on the stiffness of teeth weakened by cavity preparation. Dent Mater 2003 Nov;19(7):680-685.
  10. Effect of restorative procedures and occlusal loading on cuspal deflection. Oper Dent 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):33-38.
  11. Biophysical stress analysis of restored teeth: experimental strain measurement. Dent Mater 1988 Feb;4(1):41-48.
  12. Frictional effects between natural teeth in an artificial mouth. Dent Mater 1985 Jun;1(3):115-119.
  13. Analysis of stress in the periodontium of the maxillary first molar with a three-dimensional finite element model. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999 Mar;115(3):267-274.
  14. Displacement and stress distribution in the temporomandibular joint during clenching. Angle Orthod 1999 Aug;69(4):372-379.
  15. A comparison between BioCAD and some know methods for finite element model generation. In: Bártolo P, editor. Inovative Developments in virtual and Physical Prototyping. Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema; 2012. p. 685.
  16. Experimental observation, theoretical models, and biomechanical inference in the study of mandibular form. Am J Phys Anthropol 2000 Aug;112(4):541-551.
  17. Modeling the biomechanics of the mandible: a three-dimensional finite element study. J Biomech 1992 Mar;25(3):261-286.
  18. A survey of cusp fractures in a population of general dental practices. Int J Prosthodont. 2002 Nov-Dec;15(6):559-563.
  19. An in vivo study of cuspal fracture. J Prosthet Dent 1985;53(1):38-42.
  20. Coronal fractures in posterior teeth. Oper Dent 1989;14:28-32.
  21. Anatomy of cusps of posterior teeth and their fracture potential. J Prosthet Dent 1990;64:139-147.
  22. Influence of resin cements on cuspal deflection and fracture load of endodontically-treated teeth restored with composite inlays. Acta Odontol Scand 2012 Aug 21.
  23. An investigation of cuspal deformation and delayed recovery after occlusal loading. J Dent 2001;29:363-370.
  24. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with indirect-composite and ceramic inlay systems. Quintessence Int 2004;35:281-286.
  25. Effect of adhesive layer properties on stress distribution in composite restorations: a 3D finite element analysis. Dent Mater 2002;18:295-303.
  26. Independent movement of cusps during occlusal loading. Dent Mat 1991;7(3):186-190.
  27. Fracture resistance and stress distribution in endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with composite. J Prosth 2008a;17(2):114-119.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.