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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Golden Proportion Analysis of Dental–Skeletal Patterns of Class II and III Patients Pre and Post Orthodontic-orthognathic Treatment

Mariliani Chicarelli, Fernanda P Bragatto, Amanda VB Kasuya, Wilton M Takeshita, Liogi Iwaki-Filho, Lilian CV Iwaki

Citation Information : Chicarelli M, Bragatto FP, Kasuya AV, Takeshita WM, Iwaki-Filho L, Iwaki LC. Golden Proportion Analysis of Dental–Skeletal Patterns of Class II and III Patients Pre and Post Orthodontic-orthognathic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17 (9):728-733.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1920

Published Online: 01-01-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



The golden proportion has been used in dentistry in an attempt to improve facial function and, possibly, esthetics by simplifying the diagnosis of facial and dental disharmony. The aim of this study is to analyze pre- and postoperative cephalometric tracings of lateral cephalograms of patients with class II and III deformities submitted to orthognathic surgery, and verify if the 13 dental–skeletal patterns (ratios), as defined by Ricketts, moved closer to or further away from the golden proportion.

Materials and methods

A total of 110 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 55 obtained preoperatively and 55 postoperatively, were analyzed using Dolphin Imaging software.


Radiographs analysis demonstrated that ratios 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 13 remained statistically different from the golden proportion postoperatively. Ratio 12 was the only one to move closer to the golden number, while the opposite happened with ratio 6, which moved further away after the surgery. Ratios 2 and 11 kept statistically similar to the golden proportion both pre and postoperatively.


It may be concluded that orthognathic surgery had little effect on the proportions studied, and that the golden proportion was not present in the majority of the ratios analyzed neither before nor after surgery.

Clinical significance

Determine whether the facial patterns approach the golden ratio after surgical correction. Also determine whether the golden ratio may be a standard to guide the surgical treatment of patients with skeletal patterns of type II and III.

How to cite this article

Bragatto FP, Chicarelli M, Kasuya AVB, Takeshita WM, Iwaki-Filho L, Iwaki LCV. Golden Proportion Analysis of Dental–Skeletal Patterns of Class II and III Patients Pre and Post Orthodontic-orthognathic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):728-733.

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