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VOLUME 25 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Determining Factors in the Success of Direct Pulp Capping: A Systematic Review

Jose Francisco Gomez-Sosa, Mario Granone-Ricella, Marina Rosciano-Alvarez, Victor D Barrios-Rodriguez, Juan Goncalves-Pereira, Javier Caviedes-Bucheli

Keywords : Dental pulp, Direct pulp capping, Vital pulp therapy

Citation Information : Gomez-Sosa JF, Granone-Ricella M, Rosciano-Alvarez M, Barrios-Rodriguez VD, Goncalves-Pereira J, Caviedes-Bucheli J. Determining Factors in the Success of Direct Pulp Capping: A Systematic Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2024; 25 (4):392-401.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3673

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: To elucidate the factors that determine the success of direct pulp capping (DPC) in permanent teeth with pulp exposure due to dental caries. Materials and methods: A comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to 2023 across PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web databases was conducted using specific keywords and MeSH terms in Q1 or Q2 journals. Only prospective/retrospective clinical studies in English on 15 or more human permanent teeth with carious pulpal exposure treated with DPC agents—mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, or calcium hydroxide with a rubber dam and minimum 1-year follow-up, were considered. The factors retrieved and analyzed were based on study design, patient age, sample size, type of cavity, exposure size and location, pulp diagnosis, solutions to achieve hemostasis, hemostasis time, capping material, restoration type, follow-up period, methods of evaluation, and overall success. Review results: Out of 680 articles, only 16 articles were selected for the present systematic review on application of the selection criteria. A wide age range of patients from 6 to 88 years were considered among these studies with sample sizes ranging from 15 to 245 teeth with reversible pulpitis being the predominant diagnosis of the cases. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a capping material was evaluated in 4 studies as a lone agent, while compared with other capping agents such as biodentine or calcium hydroxide in 7 studies. The follow-up period ranged from 9 days to nearly 80 months. While both clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out in all studies, cold testing dominated the clinical tests while IOPR was the common radiograph considered. Mineral trioxide aggregate success rate was higher and similar to biodentine than calcium hydroxide. Conclusion: Direct pulp capping has a high and predictable success rate in permanent teeth with carious exposure to reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Currently, mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine have better long-term results in DPC than calcium hydroxide, hence, they should be used as an alternative to calcium hydroxide. Definitive restoration within a short period improves long-term prognosis. Clinical significance: The significance of this review lies in its provision of evidence-based information on the effectiveness of DPC and the factors that influence its success. By considering these factors, clinicians can optimize treatment outcomes and improve the long-term prognosis of the treated teeth. This systematic review serves as a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of endodontics.

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