The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 1 ( January, 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing

Khurshid A Mattoo, Abdulmajeed S Okshah, Ahid A Al-Shahrani, Abdulkhaliq Ali F Alshadidi, Fawzia I Shaabi, Abdulaziz H Mobark

Citation Information : Mattoo KA, Okshah AS, Al-Shahrani AA, Alshadidi AA, Shaabi FI, Mobark AH. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (1):23-28.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1982

Published Online: 01-01-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among undergraduate medical students in the presence of khat chewing over a period of time.

Materials and methods

Totally, 186 medical college students (age ≤ 20 years) were randomly selected for the present study. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to age, under 20 and above 20 years. The study was based on Fonseca's anamnestic index and its questionnaire, which is composed of 10 questions and classifies the severity of TMDs. The obtained data were coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for analysis using chi-square test at significance level of 5%.

Results

Most of the participants were male (68.8%) students and older than 20 years (63%). Those who reported with khat chewing comprised 31.7%. From the total samples, only 38.0% was classified as having mild TMD and 0.50% were classified as having severe TMD. Poor dental articulation, grinding of teeth, headaches, tense personalities, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking were the most common clinical findings. The mean scores showed no significant difference among gender (p ≤ 0.29) and the khat chewing (p ≤ 0.531) groups for the 10 questions. However, it showed significant difference among age groups (p ≤ 0.025).

Conclusion

The majority of subjects complained of mild TMD, while only a few cases showed a moderate TMD among different age groups. The most frequently reported dysfunctions were related to poor dental articulation and grinding of the teeth, frequent headaches, the clicking of joint, and tense personalities. No significant difference was found between gender and khat and nonkhat chewing groups.

Clinical significance

Khat chewing is a parafunctional habit and affects dental occlusion (especially cuspal wear) in terms of anterior guidance. Such alterations in occlusion are known to be one of the causative (predisposing) factors of TMD.

How to cite this article

Al Moaleem MM, Okshah AS, Al-Shahrani AA, Alshadidi AAF, Shaabi FI, Mobark AH, Mattoo KA. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):23-28.


PDF Share
  1. Investigation of the relationship between oral parafunctions and temporomandibular joint dysfunction in Turkish children with mixed and permanent dentition. J Oral Rehabil 2002 Jan;29(1):108-112.
  2. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders among students of the University of Jordan. J Clin Med Res 2009 Aug;1(3):158-164.
  3. Pattern of temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome in a Nigerian population. J Med Investig Pract 2014 Jul;9(3):116-119.
  4. Prospective study of a group of pre-university students evaluating anxiety and depression relationships with temporomandibular disorders. J Clin Exp Dent 2012 Apr;4(2):e102-e106.
  5. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in urban and rural children of northern hilly state, Himachal Pradesh, India: A cross sectional survey. Dent Hypothese 2013 Jan;4(1): 21-25.
  6. Prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in undergraduate medical students using Fonseca's questionnaire. Pakistan Oral Dent J 2014 Mar 1;34(1):3841.
  7. Prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders among university students in Riyadh. Saudi Dent J 2015 Jul;27(3):125-130.
  8. Temporomandibular disorders and related factors in a group of Iranian adolescents: a cross-sectional survey. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2011 Fall;5(4):123-127.
  9. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) among university students. Pakis Oral Dent J 2015;35(3):382-385.
  10. The incidence of temporomandibular joint disorders among dental students in AlJouf University, KSA. Int Inv J Med Med Sci 2015 Jan;2(1):5-11.
  11. The study of relationship between reported temporomandibular symptoms and clinical dysfunction index among university students in Shiraz. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012 Mar;9(2):221-225.
  12. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders among Sudanese University students. J Oral Hyg Health 2016;4:2-5.
  13. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder among North Saudi University students. Cranio 2016 May;34(3):176-181.
  14. Use of the Fonseca's questionnaire to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders in Brazilian dental undergraduates. Braz Dent J 2007;18(2):163-167.
  15. Prevalence study of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in Brazilian college students. Braz Oral Res 2006 Jan-Mar;20(1):3-7.
  16. Gender difference in prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders: a retrospective study on 243 consecutive patients. Int J Med Sci 2012;9(7):539-544.
  17. Comparison of temporomandibular disorders in Iranian dental and nondental students. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012 Mar;13(2):173-177.
  18. Incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in senior dental students in Taiwan. J Oral Rehabil 2002 Dec;29(12):1206-1211.
  19. Retrospective study of a series of 203 patients with temporomandibular joint disorders presenting at school of dentistry, University of Sulaimani. ESJ 2014 Mar;10(9):216-225.
  20. Relationship between temporomandibular joint dysfunction and psychological distress among students of Babol University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Iran J Oral Health Oral Epidemiol 2015 Sep;4(2):94-101.
  21. Conditions of oral mucosa due to takhzeen al-qat. Y J Med Sci 2011 Dec;5:1-6.
  22. Effect of Khat chewing on general and oral health. J Oral Med 2011:33-35.
  23. The effect of qat chewing on periodontal tissues and buccal mucosa membrane. Damascus U Med Sci J 2009;1:493-504.
  24. Khat (Catha edulis): health aspects of khat chewing. East Mediterr Health J 2007 May-Jun:13(3):706-718.
  25. Temporomandibular joint status, occlusal attrition, cervical erosion and facial pain among substance abusers. Odontostomatol Trop 2007 Mar;30(117):27-33.
  26. Reliability, validity, incidence and impact of temporomandibular pain disorders in adolescents. Swed Dent J (Suppl) 2007;(183):7-86.
  27. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in urban and rural children of northern hilly state, Himachal Pradesh, India: a cross sectional survey. Dent Hypothese 2013 Jan;4(1):21.
  28. Oral parafunctions and association with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Japanese university students. J Oral Rehabil 2004 Jun;31(6):518-523.
  29. Prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders in a group of Mexican adolescents and youth adults. Clin Oral Investig 2006 Mar;10(1):42-49.
  30. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the temporomandibular joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Med Res 2012 Oct;4(5):323-331.
  31. Tooth mortality in khat and non khat chewer in Sana'a Yemen. Sci Res Essays 2011 Mar;6(5):1039-1045.
  32. Diagnóstico pela anamnese da disfunção craniomandibular. RGO (Porto Alegre) 1994 Feb;42(1):23-24.
  33. Prevalence of malocclusion, its association with occlusal interferences and temporomandibular disorders among the Saudi sub-population. Oral Health Dent Manag 2014 Jun;13(2):164-169.
  34. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in dental students. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2011 Jul;23(5):316.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.