The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Antimicrobial Potential of Plant Extracts and Chemical Fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D. Penn on Oral Microorganisms

Thaíse PD Sampaio, Nathália AO Cartaxo-Furtado, Ana CD de Medeiros, Harley S Alves, Pedro L Rosalen, Jozinete V Pereira

Citation Information : Sampaio TP, Cartaxo-Furtado NA, de Medeiros AC, Alves HS, Rosalen PL, Pereira JV. Antimicrobial Potential of Plant Extracts and Chemical Fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D. Penn on Oral Microorganisms. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (5):392-398.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2053

Published Online: 01-09-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and chemical fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Candida albicans as well as to identify the chemical classes found in the bioactive extracts possessing better activity.

Materials and methods

Freeze-dried hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves (LC and LF respectively) and ethanol extracts of bark and leaves (EC and EF respectively) of S. obtusifolium were assessed for antimicrobial potential by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The tests were performed by microdilution method (in triplicate) in three independent experiments. Phytochemical characterization was performed by quantification of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins.


The EC extract presented weak antimicrobial potential on the growth of S. mutans (MIC = 1000 µg/mL); all extracts showed moderate inhibitory activity on the growth of C. albicans (MIC = 500 µg/mL). The dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions of LF extracts showed moderate growth inhibitory activity (MIC = 250 µg/mL) on C. albicans and fungicide potential (MFC/MIC = 2). The phytochemical characterization revealed a predominance of total polyphenols (EC = 29.23%; LC = 25.98%) and condensed tannins (LC = 38.84%; LF = 17.78%).


The dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions of S. obtusifolium LF extract showed antifungal activity against C. albicans, with the potential for bioprospection of phytocompounds for the treatment of periodontal fungal diseases caused by this microorganism. The effect may be related to phytochemical compounds from the polyphenol and condensed tannin classes.

Clinical significance

Research for new oral microbial disease treatment alternatives in bioactive compounds from medicinal plants is of clinical relevance and scientific interest since many therapeutic antifungal agents do not obtain the effectiveness expected due to microbial resistance, or to adverse effects on human tissues.

How to cite this article

Sampaio TPD, Cartaxo-Furtado NAO, de Medeiros ACD, Alves HS, Rosalen PL, Pereira JV. Antimicrobial Potential of Plant Extracts and Chemical Fractions of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T.D. Penn on Oral Microorganisms. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(5):392-398.

PDF Share
  1. The exopolysaccharide matrix modulates the interaction between 3D architecture and virulence of a mixed-species oral biofilm. PLoS Pathog 2012;8(4):e1002623.
  2. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth. PLoS One 2010 Feb;5(2):e9321.
  3. The effect of mouthrinses against oral microorganisms. Braz Oral Res 2007;21(Special Issue 1):23-28.
  4. Symbiotic relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans synergizes virulence of plaque biofilms in vivo. Infect Immun 2014 May;82(5):1968-1981.
  5. ; Dam, DD.; Allen, CM.; Bouquot, JE. Patologia Oral e Maxilofacial. 3rd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier; 2009.
  6. Controlling the oral biofilm with antimicrobials. J Dent 2010 Jun;38 (Suppl 1):S11-S15.
  7. Potencial antimicrobiano de seis plantas do semiárido paraibano contra bactérias relacionadas à infecção endodôntica. Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl 2013 Dec;34(3):351-355.
  8. Atividade antibacteriana, antifúngica e moduladora da atividade antimicrobiana de frações obtidas de Lygodium venustum SW. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plantas Med Aromát 2013;12(1):38-43.
  9. A comparison of the anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of extracts from commonly used medicinal plants. J Altern Complement Med 2014 May;20(5):375-382.
  10. In vitro biomass production of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem & Schult). Braz J Pharmacogn 2008 Dec;18:696-698.
  11. Estudo autoecológico de Bumélia sertorium (Quixabeira) - Espécie ameaçada de extinção no ecossistema Caatinga. Re Biol Ciênc Terra 2004;4(1):81-92.
  12. Chemistry and pharmacology of an ethanol extract of Bumelia sartorum. J Ethnopharmacol 1985 Nov-Dec;14(2-3):173-185.
  13. ; Nunes, AT.; Almeida, ALS.; Almeida, CMAD.; Lins Neto, EMF.; Vieira, FJ., Silva FS.; Soldati GT.; Nascimento LGF.; Santos LL., et al. Caatinga: biodiversidade e Qualidade de Vida. Vol. 6. Bauru: Canal; 2010.
  14. Medicinal plants of the caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of NE Brazil: a quantitative approach. J Ethnopharmacol 2007 Dec;114(3):325-354.
  15. Metabolite profiling of the leaves of the Brazilian folk medicine Sideroxylon obtusifolium. Planta Med 2012 May;78(7):703-710.
  16. Levantamento fitogeográfico das plantas medicinais nativas do cariri paraibano. Rev Geogr Acad 2010;4(2):73-85.
  17. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard M7-A6. 6th ed. Wayne (PA): CLSI; 2003.
  18. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts; approved standard M27-A3. 3rd ed. Wayne (PA): CLSI; 2008.
  19. Study bioprospecting of medicinal plant extracts of the semiarid northeast: contribution to the control of oral microorganisms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:681207.
  20. Microtitre plate-based antibacterial assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth, and its application in the in vitro antibacterial screening of phytochemicals. Methods 2007 Aug;42(4):321-324.
  21. Colorimetric broth microdilution method for the antifungal screening of plant extracts against yeasts. Methods 2007 Aug;42(4):325-329.
  22. Polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and quinone reductase activity of an aqueous extract of Ardisia compressa in comparison to mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green (Camellia sinensis) teas. J Agric Food Chem 2004 Jun;52(11):3583-3589.
  23. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem 2005 Jul;91(3):571-577.
  24. Vanillin-HCl method for condensed tannins: effect of organic solvents used for extraction of tannins. J Chem Ecol 1993 Apr;19(4):613-621.
  25. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2002 Oct;97(7):1027-1031.
  26. Antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants involved in popular treatment of mycoses. J Ethnopharmacol 2007 May;111(2):409-412.
  27. Avaliação da ação de extratos vegetais sobre a formação de biofilmes por Candida albicans. Rev Univ Vale Rio Verde 2011;9(2):337-343.
  28. Atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) sobre espécies orais de Candida. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2010 Jun;12(2):157-162.
  29. Plantas medicinais: fatores de influência no conteúdo de metabólitos secundários. Quím Nova 2007 Feb;30(2):374-381.
  30. In vitro antioxidant potential of medicinal plant extracts and their activities against oral bacteria based on Brazilian folk medicine. Arch Oral Biol 2008 Jun;53(6):545-552.
  31. In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action. Braz Oral Res 2012 May-Jun;26(3):215-221.
  32. Antibacterial and antioxidante activities and acute toxicity of Bumelia sartorum Mart., Sapotaceae, a Brazilian medicinal plant. Braz J Pharmacogn 2011 Feb;21(1):86-91.
  33. Therapeutic benefits of Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Humb. ex Roem. & Schult.) T.D. Penn., Sapotaceae, in experimental models of pain and inflammation. Braz J Pharmacogn 2010 Dec;20(6):933-938.
  34. Relationship of biometric parameters on the concentration of tannins in two medicinal plants – a case study. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plantas Med Aromát 2010;9(5):368-376.
  35. Antifungal potential of Sideroxylon obtusifolium and Syzygium cumini and their mode of action against Candida albicans. Pharm Biol 2016 Oct;54(10):2312-2319.
  36. Evaluation of antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against oral Candida albicans and proteinases. Mycopathologia 2011 Aug;172(2):117-124.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.