The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Herpes Simplex 1 and Periopathogen Role in Peri-implantitis

S Parthiban, Nizar Ahmed, T Ramakrishnan, V Balakumar, Manoj Raja, Himanshu Shekhar

Citation Information : Parthiban S, Ahmed N, Ramakrishnan T, Balakumar V, Raja M, Shekhar H. Herpes Simplex 1 and Periopathogen Role in Peri-implantitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (5):399-404.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2054

Published Online: 01-09-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



The objectives of this study were to compare the qualitative and quantitative profiles of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) in implant surfaces between participants with periimplantitis (PI) and Healthy peri-implant tissues and to quantitatively assess the relation between HSV-1 and periopathogens inside the microbiological profile associated with PI.

Materials and methods

A total of 40 patients with PI and 40 with healthy peri-implant tissues (HI) were recruited. Plaque samples from peri-implant sulcus and internal implant connections were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect and quantify HSV-1 and periodontopathogens. Frequencies of detection and levels of microorganisms were compared between PI and HI; the frequencies and levels of periodontopathogens were compared between HSV-1+ and HSV-1- PI to assess qualitative relations between HSV-1 and bacteria. Correlation between HSV-1 and periodontopathogens levels was assessed in PI and HI.


A total of 77 dental implants affected by PI, and 113 HIs were included. The HSV-1 prevalence was slightly higher in PI compared with controls (33.3 vs 23.8%; p > 0.05); HSV-1 was detected in external samples more frequently compared with internal samples. The HSV-1-positive patients revealed higher median loads of Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Campylobacter rectus (Cr) compared with HSV-1-negative patients. In the PI group, a significant positive correlation was evidenced between HSV-1 and Tannerella forsythia, Parvimonas micra (Pm), Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Cr levels, while in the HI, positive correlation between HSV-1 and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Pi, and Pm was established.


The HSV-1 prevalence cannot be used to identify PI. The HSV-1 was found in similar levels of PI and HI patients after an average of 6 years of loaded implants. The HSV-1 prevalence cannot be used to identify implants with or without the presence of PI.

Clinical significance

Although HSV-1 is detected in PI site, HSV-1 may represent an unspecific indicator for the host response to the bacterial challenge observed in PI.

How to cite this article

Parthiban S, Ahmed N, Ramakrishnan T, Balakumar V, Raja M, Shekhar H. Herpes Simplex 1 and Periopathogen Role in Peri-implantitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(5):399-404.

PDF Share
  1. Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a current understanding of their diagnoses and clinical implications. J Periodontol 2013 Apr;84(4):436-443.
  2. The characteristics of biofilms in peri-implant disease. J Clin Periodontol 2011 Mar;38 (Suppl 11):203-213.
  3. Periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in patients with healthy and inflamed periodontal and peri-implant tissues. Clin Oral Implants Res 2016 Jan;27(1):13-21.
  4. Patient-specific analysis of periodontal and peri-implant microbiomes. J Dent Res 2013 Dec;92(12 Suppl):168S-175S.
  5. Are peri-implantitis lesions different from periodontitis lesions? J Clin Periodontol 2011 Mar;38 Suppl 11:188-202.
  6. Human herpesvirus 7, Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus in periodontal tissues of periodontally diseased and healthy subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2008 Oct;35(10):831-837.
  7. Epstein-Barr virus associated peri-implantitis: a split-mouth study. Clin Oral Investig 2015 Mar;19(2):535-543.
  8. Human herpesviruses and Porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with juvenile periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000 Jun;71(6):981-988.
  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection. N Engl J Med 2000 Aug;343(7):481-492.
  10. Herpesviral-bacterial interactions in periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000 2010 Feb;52(1):117-140.
  11. Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in subgingival plaque at peri-implantitis, mucositis and healthy sites. A pilot study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Mar;40(3):271-276.
  12. The prevalence and quantitative analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus in healthy implants and implants affected by periimplantitis: a preliminary report. J Oral Sci Rehabil 2015 Oct;1(1):34-40.
  13. The inflammophilic character of the periodontitis-associated microbiota. Mol Oral Microbiol 2014 Dec;29(6):248-257.
  14. Bleeding on probing. A predictor for the progression of periodontal disease? J Clin Periodontol 1986 Jul;13(6):590-596.
  15. Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J 1975 Dec;25(4):229-235.
  16. Correlation between different genotypes of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus and peri-implant tissue status. Aust Dent J 2011 Dec;56(4):382-388.
  17. The microbiologic profile associated with peri-implantitis in humans: a systematic review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2016 Mar-Apr;31(2):359-368.
  18. Infection at titanium implants with or without a clinical diagnosis of inflammation. Clin Oral Implants Res 2007 Aug;18(4):509-516.
  19. Clinical and microbiological determinants of ailing dental implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2009 Mar;11(1):24-36.
  20. Comprehensive microbiological findings in peri-implantitis and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2013 Mar;40(3):218-226.
  21. Epstein-Barr virus, cytokines, and inflammation: a cocktail for the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's lymphoma? Exp Hematol 2006 Apr;34(4):399-406.
  22. Effect of anti-infective mechanical therapy on clinical parameters and cytokine levels in human peri-implant diseases. J Periodontol 2009 Feb;80(2):234-243.
  23. Cytokine expression in peri-implant crevicular fluid in relation to bacterial presence. J Clin Periodontol 2015 Jul;42(7):697-702.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.