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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 6 ( June, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Tooth Wear Patterns among Khat and Shammah Users in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Survey

Mohammed E Sayed, Bassam M Hakami, Ammar D Hamdi

Citation Information : Sayed ME, Hakami BM, Hamdi AD. Tooth Wear Patterns among Khat and Shammah Users in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18 (6):429-436.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2060

Published Online: 01-09-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



The effect of Khat and Shammah habits, with the parafunctional jaw activities that accompany them, on the structure and integrity of the natural dentition has not yet been investigated. The literature lacks studies that identify the patterns of tooth wear among Khat and Shammah users. Therefore, this study is the first attempt to address this concern in Jazan City population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 300 recruits among dental clinics in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 1, 2015, to April 30, 2016. Questionnaires were used for data collection on oral habits (Khat and Shammah use), age, gender, intake of acidic food or beverages, food habits (intake of fruits, grains, and vegetables), systemic diseases, oral hygiene habits (brushing frequency, technique, and type of toothbrush), parafunctional habits, stress, and acid reflux. Clinical examination was performed to assess the grade of tooth wear. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine the empirical relationship between the independent variables and outcomes. In addition, binary logistic regressions were used to measure the relationship between the independent variables and each of the dependent variables (presence of occlusal wear, tooth wear grade 0 through 4).


Khat and Shammah use was statistically significantly associated with tooth wear (p < 0.05). A significant association of tooth wear was observed with age, gender, intake of acidic food and beverages, oral hygiene habits, and stress.


Consumption of Khat and Shammah may be attributed as one of the major reasons associated with tooth wear among the Saudi population.

Clinical significance

The habitual use of Khat and Shammah causes tooth wear of varying severity, which may negatively affect esthetics, phonetics, and function and necessitate a complex restorative treatment.

How to cite this article

Sayed ME, Hamdi AD, Hakami BM, Mugri MH, Bhandi SH. Tooth Wear Patterns among Khat and Shammah Users in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Crosssectional Survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(6):429-436.

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