The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans.
Materials and methods
Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts.
When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm).
This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations.
Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.
How to cite this article
Mathai K, Anand S, Aravind A, Dinatius P, Krishnan AV, Mathai M. Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1004-1008.
Studies on ampicillin resistant plasmid of Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries patients. Biotechnol Res Commun 2016 Mar;9(1):151-156.
Dental caries: a review. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2016 Jan;6(53):1-7.
Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross sectional study. J Clin Exp Dent 2015 Feb;7(1):e114-e118.
Chlorhexidine as an antimicrobial agent in dentistry. A review. Oral Health Dent Manag 2016; 15(2): 93-100.
Green tea in the prevention of dental caries – a systematic review. Int Arch Biomed Clin Res 2017 Jan-Mar;3(1):1-6.
Chemical plaque control strategies in the prevention of biofilm-associated oral diseases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Apr;17(4):337-343.
Medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe rural community, Eastern Madagascar. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2015 Sep;11:68.
Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015 Jul-Sep;4(3):217-220.
Antioxidant properties of raw garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Int Food Res J 2012 Jan;19(2):589-591.
Medicinal values of garlic: a review. Int J Med Med Sci 2013 Sep;5(9):401-408.
Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. Int J Prev Med 2013 Apr;4(Suppl 1):S36-S42.
Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 Jun;16(6):731-742.
Evaluation of efficacy of lemon juice extract (Citrius lemoni Risso) on wound healing and haemostatic mechanism of albino Wister rats. Int J Sci Res 2013 Sep;2(9):190-193.
Studies on strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries-active and caries-free individuals in Iceland. J Oral Microbiol 2012 Mar;4.
Herbal medicine: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Altern Integr Med 2015 Aug;4:195.
Comparative evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of six Indian plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Feb;9(2):ZC50-ZC53.
Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012 Aug;2(8):597-601.
In vitro assessment of anti-Streptococcus mutans potential of honey. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2010 Jan;12(1):61-64.
Effect of honey and aqueous ginger extract against Streptococcus mutans isolated from extracted carious deciduous teeth. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2013 Oct-Dec;25(4):265-267.
Influence of plant extracts on the growth of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in vitro. Proc Estonian Acad Sci 2015 Mar;64(1):62-67.
Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed 2014 Jan-Feb;4(1):1-14.
Antibacterial activity of garlic and lime extracts on isolates of extracted carious teeth. Afr J Biotech 2010 May;9(21):3163-3166.