The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 2 ( May, 2004 ) > List of Articles


Vitamin C in Health and Disease

Samer A. Bsoul, Geza T. Terezhalmy

Citation Information : Bsoul SA, Terezhalmy GT. Vitamin C in Health and Disease. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004; 5 (2):1-13.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-5-2-1

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-02-2006

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2004; The Author(s).



Bsoul SA, Terezhalmy GT. Vitamin C in Health and Disease. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004 May;(5)2:001-013.

PDF Share
  1. al. Effects of L-ascorbic acid on lysyl oxidase in the formation of collagen cross-links. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Oct;66(10):2077-82.
  2. B. Ascorbate requirements for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relation to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr 54 Suppl(1991),pp. 35S-40S.
  3. Adult scurvy. Ann Emerg Med. 1981 Dec;10(12):652-5.
  4. Scurvy: more than historical relevance. Am Fam Physician. 1993 Sep 15;48(4):609-13. Review.
  5. al. A patient with platelets deficient in glycoprotein VI that lack both collagen-induced aggregation and adhesion. J Clin Invest. 1989 Nov;84(5):1440-5.
  6. al. A novel platelet aggregating factor found in a patient with defective collagen-induced platelet aggregation and autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood. 1987 Jun;69(6):1712-20.
  7. al. Total tooth loss and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women: possible roles of citrus fruit consumption, vitamin C, and inflammatory and thrombotic variables. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003 Jul;56(7):694-700.
  8. Oral lesions in scurvy. Aust Dent J. 2002 Mar;47(1):82; author reply 82-3. No abstract available.
  9. Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on the permeability and collagen biosynthesis of oral mucosal epithelium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Sep 30;258:253-63. No abstract available.
  10. al. Enhancement of random migration and chemotactic response of human leukocytes by ascorbic acid. J Clin Invest. 1974 Mar;53(3):813-8. No abstract available.
  11. Effects of serotonin, carbamylcholine, and ascorbic acid on leukocyte cyclic GMP and chemotaxis. J Cell Biol. 1975 Nov;67(2PT.1):480-4.
  12. Permeability of gingival sulcular epithelium in the development of scorbutic gingivitis. J Oral Pathol. 1981 Feb;10(1):40-8.
  13. al. The effect of subclinical ascorbate deficiency on periodontal health in nonhuman primates. J Periodontal Res. 1981 Nov;16(6):628-36. No abstract available.
  14. The effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on the teeth and periodontal tissues of guinea pigs. J Dent Res. 1959 Mar-Apr;38(2):232-43. No abstract available.
  15. Reduced bactericidal activity in neutrophils from scorbutic animals and the effect of ascorbic acid on these target bacteria in vivo and in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl): 1214S-1220S.
  16. al. Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1215-23.
  17. al. Dental caries and mutans streptococci in relation to plasma ascorbic acid. Scand J Dent Res. 1994 Apr;102(2):103-8.
  18. al. Enhanced production of mineralized nodules and collagenous proteins in vitro by calcium ascorbate supplemented with vitamin C metabolites. J Periodontol. 1999 Sep;70(9):992-9.
  19. al. Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on primary and reparative dentinogenesis in non-ascorbate-synthesizing ODS rats. Arch Oral Biol. 1997 Oct-Nov;42(10-11):695-704.
  20. al. Ascorbate modulation of chondrocyte gene expression is independent of its role in collagen secretion. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 9;269(36):22500-6.
  21. al. The contribution of vitamin C to healing of experimental fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001 Jul;121(7):426-8.
  22. al. Oxygen-free radicals impair fracture healing in rats. Acta Orthop Scand. 1995 Oct;66(5):473-5.
  23. al. Long-term low ascorbic acid intake reduces bone mass in guinea pigs. J Nutr. 1996 Aug;126(8):2044-9.
  24. al. Scurvy results in decreased collagen synthesis and bone density in the guinea pig animal model. Bone. 1996 Mar;18(3):281-8. Erratum in: Bone 1996 Oct;19(4):419.
  25. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to mortality among US adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Jun;20(3):255-63.
  26. Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, and the carotenoids. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Jul;96(7):693-702; quiz 703-4. Review.
  27. The antioxidant role of vitamin C. Adv Free Rad Biol Med 1986;2:419.
  28. Ascorbic acid in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jun;3(3):174-86. Review.
  29. Effects of ascorbic acid and DL-alpha-tocopherol on human hepatoma cell proliferation and redifferentiation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Apr;21(4):348-52.
  30. al. Selected micronutrients and oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000 Apr 1;86(1):122-7.
  31. al. Gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer: Helicobacter pylori, serum vitamin C, and other risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Oct 4;92(19):1607-12.
  32. al. Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Mar 20;88(6):340-8.
  33. al. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer. 2000 Mar;36(5):636-46.
  34. al. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):563-7.
  35. al. A prospective study of plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Mar;11(3):279-83.
  36. al. The effect of cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant therapy on endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion. N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 23;332(8):488-93.
  37. Vitamin E as the biological lipid antioxidant. Vitam Horm 1962;20:493.
  38. al. Modulation of coronary vasomotor tone in humans. Progressive endothelial dysfunction with different early stages of coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1991 Feb;83(2):391-401.
  39. al. Impaired vasodilation of forearm resistance vessels in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Clin Invest. 1990 Jul;86(1):228-34.
  40. al. The role of nitric oxide in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of hypercholesterolemic patients. Circulation. 1993 Dec;88(6):2541-7.
  41. al. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels of humans with hypercholesterolemia. Circulation. 1997 Jun 17;95(12):2617-22.
  42. al. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the brachial artery in variant angina pectoris and the effect of intravenous administration of vitamin C. Am J Cardiol. 2001 May 15;87(10):1154-9.
  43. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology. 1992 May;3(3):194-202.
  44. Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Sep 1;144(5):501-11.
  45. Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins in relation to ischemic heart disease and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 May;45(5 Suppl):1368-77. No abstract available.
  46. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine. Nature. 1988 Jun 16;333(6174):664-6.
  47. al. Abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jul 5;323(1):22-7.
  48. al. Vasodilation to acetylcholine in primary and secondary forms of human hypertension. Hypertension. 1993 Jun;21(6 Pt 2):929-33.
  49. al. Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Circulation. 1993 May;87(5):1468-74.
  50. al. Effect of increased availability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide precursor on endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normal subjects and in patients with essential hypertension. Circulation. 1993 May;87(5):1475-81.
  51. al. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with essential hypertension: evidence that the abnormality is not at the muscarinic receptor level. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994 Jun;23(7):1610-6.
  52. al. Cyclooxygenase inhibition restores nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1997 Jan;29(1 Pt 2):274-9.
  53. Role of products of univalent reduction of oxygen in hypertensive vascular injury. In:Laragh JH, Brenner, BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology. Diagnosis, and Management. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Raven Press, Ltd: 1995;685-696.
  54. al. Release of intact endothelium-derived relaxing factor depends on endothelial superoxide dismutase activity. Am J Physiol. 1991 Feb;260(2 Pt 1):C219-25.
  55. Free-radical scavengers, thiol-containing reagents and endothelium- dependent relaxation in isolated rat and human resistance arteries. Clin Sci (Lond). 1993 Mar;84(3):287-95.
  56. al. Role of superoxide in the depressed nitric oxide production by the endothelium of genetically hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1995 Dec;26(6 Pt 1):854-7.
  57. al. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation. 1998 Jun 9;97(22):2222-9.
  58. Vitamin C and blood pressure╌an overview. J Hum Hypertens. 1997 Jun;11(6):343-50. Review.
  59. al. Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction of epicardial coronary arteries in hypertensive patients. Circulation. 1997 Sep 2;96(5):1513-9.
  60. al. Endothelial function in chronic congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Jun 15;69(19):1596-601.
  61. al. Flow-mediated arteriolar dilation is abnormal in congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1993;87(suppl VII):VII-92-VII-96.
  62. al. Flow-dependent coronary artery dilatation in humans. Circulation. 1989 Sep;80(3):466-74.
  63. Physical training improves endothelial function in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1996 Jan 15;93(2):210-4.
  64. al. Reduced gene expression of vascular endothelial NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-1 in heart failure. Circ Res. 1996 Jan;78(1):58-64.
  65. al. Oxygen free radicals and congestive heart failure. Br Heart J. 1991 May;65(5):245-8.
  66. al. Vitamin C improves endothelial function of conduit arteries in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1998 Feb 3;97(4):363-8.
  67. Iron and vitamins. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1995;(52):20-9. Review.
  68. Correction of anemia and iron deficiency in vegetarians by administration of ascorbic acid. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Oct;39(4):403-6.
  69. Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomed Environ Sci. 1992 Jun;5(2):125-9.
  70. The glucose/insulin system and vitamin C: implications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Apr;17(2):105-8. Review.
  71. Regulatory functions of the vascular endothelium. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jul 5;323(1):27-36. Review. No abstract available.
  72. Oxygen free radicals abolish endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rat aorta. Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct;255(4 Pt 2):H825-33.
  73. al. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Mar 1;31(3):552-7.
  74. al. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jan 1;97(1):22-8.
  75. al. Hyperglycemia rapidly suppresses flow-mediated endothelium- dependent vasodilation of brachial artery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jul;34(1):146-54.
  76. Oxygen-derived free radicals, endothelium, and responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol. 1986 May;250(5 Pt 2):H815-21.
  77. al. Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Feb;87(4):1620-4.
  78. al. Ascorbate restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by acute hyperglycemia in humans. Circulation. 2001 Mar 27;103(12):1618-23.
  79. The National Institute of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD; 1991.
  80. al. Oxygen free radicals and platelet and granulocyte aggregability in renal transplant patients. Transplantation. 1993 Mar;55(3):500-4.
  81. al. Oxidation of low density lipoproteins from patients with renal failure or renal transplants. Kidney Int. 1995 Jul;48(1):227-36.
  82. al. Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. Kidney Int. 1999 Mar;55(3):1104-10.
  83. al. Endothelial dysfunction in renal transplant recipients maintained on cyclosporine. Kidney Int. 2000 Mar;57(3):1100-6.
  84. Hypercholesterolemia increases endothelial superoxide anion production. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jun;91(6):2546-51.
  85. al. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1997 Aug 7;337(6):408-16. Review.
  86. al. Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in renal allograft recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001 Jun;16(6):1251-5.
  87. Relations among aging, antioxidant status, and cataract. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Dec;62(6 Suppl):1439S-1447S. Review.
  88. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Dec;62(6 Suppl):1448S-1461S. Review.
  89. al. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. BMJ. 1992 Aug 8;305(6849):335-9.
  90. al. Vandenlangenberg GM, Trabulsi JN, Palta M. Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;118(11):1556-63.
  91. Free radicals in the genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Sep 24;695:73-6.
  92. al. Oxidative-stress associated parameters (lactoferrin, superoxide dismutases) in serum of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Life Sci. 1997;60(1):13-9.
  93. al. Influence of vitamin E and C supplementation on lipoprotein oxidation in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 Aug 1;31(3):345-54.
  94. al. Low plasma vitamin C in Alzheimer patients despite an adequate diet. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998;13:749-54.
  95. al. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1998 Sep;12(3):121-6.
  96. Vitamin C and acute respiratory infections. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Sep;3(9):756-61. Review.
  97. al. The clinical effects of vitamin C supplementation in elderly hospitalised patients with acute respiratory infections. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994;64(3):212-9.
  98. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000980. Review.
  99. Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Adv Ther. 2002 May-Jun;19(3):151-9.
  100. al. Topical treatment of recurrent mucocutaneous herpes with ascorbic acid-containing solution. Antiviral Res. 1995 Jun;27(3):263-70.
  101. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1978 Jan;45(1):56-62.
  102. The role of glutathione in lymphocyte activation. I. Comparison of inhibitory effects of buthionine sulfoximine and 2-cyclohexene-1-one by nuclear size transformation. J Immunol. 1985 Oct;135(4):2740-7.
  103. Requirement of thiol compounds as reducing agents for IL-2-mediated induction of LAK activity and proliferation of human NK cells. J Immunol. 1993 Nov 15;151(10):5535-44.
  104. al. The thiols glutathione, cysteine, and homocysteine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In: Watson RR. editor. Nutrients and Foods in AIDS. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 1998:35-69.
  105. al. Intracellular glutathione levels in T cell subsets decrease in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Feb;8(2):305-11.
  106. al. CD4 and CD8 T cells with high intracellular glutathione levels are selectively lost as the HIV infection progresses. Int Immunol. 1991 Sep;3(9):933-7.
  107. Increased levels of oxidized glutathione in CD4+ lymphocytes associated with disturbed intracellular redox balance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Blood. 1995 Jul 1;86(1):258-67.
  108. al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression in chronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione, glutathione ester, and N-acetylcysteine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Feb 1;88(3):986-90.
  109. Comparative study of the anti-HIV activities of ascorbate and thiol-containing reducing agents in chronically HIV-infected cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1231S-1235S.
  110. In vitro inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by ascorbic acid. Biologicals. 1995 Mar;23(1):75-81.
  111. al. Virological and immunological effects of antioxidant treatment in patients with HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000 Oct;30(10):905-14.
  112. al. Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. AIDS. 1998 Sep 10;12(13):1653-9.
  113. NSAID gastropathy. In: Bianchi Porro G, ed. Gastroenterology and Hepatology. London: McGraw-Hill, 1999:181-92.
  114. al. Role of reactive oxygen metabolites in aspirin-induced gastric damage in humans: gastroprotection by vitamin C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 May;15(5):677-87.
  115. Role of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and N-nitrosation in etiology of gastric, esophageal, nasopharyngeal and bladder cancer and contribution to cancer of known exposures to NOC. Cancer Lett. 1995 Jun 29;93(1):17-48. Review. Erratum in: Cancer Lett 1995 Nov 6; 7(2):271.
  116. Vitamin C function and status in chronic disease. Nutr Clin Care. 2002 Mar-Apr;5(2):66-74. Review.
  117. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Beta-carotene, and Other Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
  118. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1086-107. Review.
  119. Vitamin C and human health╌a review of recent data relevant to human requirements. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1996;66(1):19-30. Review.
  120. Human metabolism and the requirement for vitamin C. In: Packer L, Fuchs J, eds. Vitamin C in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 1997:341-66.
  121. Vitamin C, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In: Packer L, Fuchs J, eds. Vitamin C in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 1997:425-55.
  122. Nutrition and human disease: how much extra vitamin C might smokers need? Lancet 1993;341:1091 (letter).
  123. al. Effect of smoking cessation on plasma ascorbic acid concentration. BMJ 1996;313:91.
  124. al. Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid as biomarkers of oxidative stress caused by smoking. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4):959-63.
  125. al. Modulation of oxidant stress in vivo in chronic cigarette smokers. Circulation. 1996 Jul 1;94(1):19-25.
  126. Vitamin C. In: Pharmacology of micronutrients. New York: Alan R Liss Inc, 1988:201-44.
  127. al. Vitamin C in premature and full-term human neonates. Redox Rep 1996;2:257-62.
  128. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7915-22. Review.
  129. al. Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a populationbased sample of older persons. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Aug 1;144(3):275-80.
  130. The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997 Jun;45(6):718-24.
  131. Cohort study of vitamin C intake and cognitive impairment. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Jul 1;148(1):45-50.
  132. Vitamin C. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1999.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.