The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2007 ) > List of Articles


HIV: Infection Control Issues For Oral Healthcare Personnel

Geza T. Terezhalmy, Michaell A. Huber

Citation Information : Terezhalmy GT, Huber MA. HIV: Infection Control Issues For Oral Healthcare Personnel. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007; 8 (3):1-12.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-8-3-1

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-05-2008

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2007; The Author(s).



To present the essential elements of an infection control/exposure control plan in the oral healthcare setting with emphasis on HIV infection.

Methods and Materials

A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted with special emphasis on HIV-related infection control issues in the oral healthcare setting.


Currently available knowledge related to HIV-related infection control issues is supported by data derived from well-conducted trials or extensive, controlled observations, or, in the absence of such data, by best-informed, most authoritative opinion available.


Essential elements of an effective HIV-related infection control plan include: (1) education and training related to the etiology and epidemiology of HIV infection and exposure prevention; (2) plans for the management of oral healthcare personnel potentially exposed to HIV and for the follow-up of oral healthcare personnel exposed to HIV; and (3) a policy for work restriction of HIV-positive oral healthcare personnel.

Clinical Significance

While exposure prevention remains the primary strategy for reducing occupational exposure to HIV, knowledge about potential risks and concise written procedures that promote a seamless response following occupational exposure can greatly reduce the emotional impact of an accidental needlestick injury.


Huber MA, Terezhalmy GT. HIV: Infection Control Issues For Oral Healthcare Personnel. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007 March;(8)3:001-012.

PDF Share
  1. Pneumocystis pneumonia – Los Angeles. MMWR 1981;30:250-2.
  2. AIDS – the first 20 years. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1764-72.
  3. The immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1993;328:327-35.
  4. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Ann Rev Immunol 1995;13:487-512.
  5. 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults. MMWR 1992;41(No. RR-17):1-19.
  6. Available at: (accessed April 7, 2006).
  7. The AIDS epidemic in 2004. N Engl J Med 2004;351:115-7.
  8. Surveillance of healthcare personnel with HIV/AIDS, as of December 2002. Available at: (accessed April 4, 2006).
  9. Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: national case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:86-96.
  10. Occupational deaths among healthcare workers. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:1003-8.
  11. Guidelines for measuring national HIV prevalence in population-based surveys. Available at: (accessed April 4, 2006).
  12. AIDS epidemic update December 2005. Available at: (accessed April 11, 2006).
  13. Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnosis – 33 states, 2001-2004. MMWR 2005;54:1149-53.
  14. A controlled trial of zidovudine in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1995;333:408-13.
  15. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral and revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR 2001;50(No. RR-19):1-110.
  16. Think HIV. Why physicians should lower their threshold for HIV testing. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1994-2000.
  17. Donor screening assays for infectious agents and HIV diagnostic assays. Available at: (accessed April 10, 2006).
  18. Detection of acute infections during HIV testing in North Carolina. N Engl J Med 2005;352;1873-83.
  19. Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 2005;352:570-85.
  20. Management of newly diagnosed HIV infection. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1702-10.
  21. Expanded screening for HIV in the United States – an analysis of cost-effectiveness. N Engl Med 2005;352;586-95.
  22. . Accessed on may 1, 2006.
  23. Classification and diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV infection. ECClearinghouse on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection and WHO Collaborating Centre on Oral Manifestations of the Immunodeficiency Virus. J Oral Pathol Med 1993;22:289-91.
  24. Synchronous kinetics of CD4+ lymphocytes and viral load before the onset of oral candidosis and hairy leukoplakia in a cohort of Mexican HIV-infected patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2005;21:981-90.
  25. Longitudinal study of the prevalence and prognostic implications of oral manifestations in Romanian children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pediatr Infect Dis 2005;24:1067-71.
  26. Overview of the fourth international workshop on the oral manifestations of HIV infection. Oral Dis 2002;8(Suppl 2):9-14.
  27. Oral ulcerations in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, management, and relevance to disease progression. Quintessence Int 1998;29:523-34.
  28. Outlook in oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 2000;356:2160.
  29. Prevalence and classification of HIV-associated oral lesions. Oral Dis 2002;8(Suppl 2):98-109.
  30. Oral lesions in Brazilian HIV-infected children undergoing HAART. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006 Jan 4; [Epub ahead of print].
  31. Acute bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: immune reconstitution disease in a patient with AIDS. Sex Transm Inf 2005;81:517-8.
  32. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV. Cur Opin Infect Dis 2006;19:20-25.
  33. Oral manifestations of HIV disease. Top HIV Med 2005;13:143-8.
  34. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: more answers, more questions. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;57:167-70.
  35. An investigation of dentists’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV+ and patients with other blood-borne viruses in South Cheshire, UK. Br Dent J 2004;196:749-54.
  36. Oral and dental care and treatment protocols for the management of HIV-infected patients. Oral Dis 2002;8(Suppl 2):136-43.
  37. Managing the care of patients infected with bloodborne diseases. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:1350-8.
  38. Dental management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Quintessence Int 2003;34:515-25.
  39. Therapeutic vaccination against HIV: current progress and future possibilities. Clin Sci (London); 2006;110:59-71.
  40. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1485-1490.
  41. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR 2005;54(No. RR-9):1-24.
  42. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview. Am J Med 1997;102(suppl 5B):9-15.
  43. The risk of occupational human immunodeficiency virus in health care workers. Arch Int Med 1993;153:1451-1458.
  44. Update: human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers exposed to blood of infected patients. MMWR 1987;36:285-289.
  45. Frequency of nonparenteral occupational exposures to blood and body fluids before and after universal precautions training. Am J Med 1991;90:145-153.
  46. Risk for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) associated with clinical exposures: a prospective evaluation. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:740-746.
  47. Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings-2003. MMWR 2003;52(No. RR-17):1-68.
  48. 29 CFR Part 1910.1030. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; final rule. Federal Register 1991;56:64004-64182.
  49. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR 2001;50(No. RR-11):1-51.
  50. Failure of zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis. Am J Med 1997;102(suppl 5B): 52-55.
  51. Seroconversion to HIV-1 following a needlestick injury despite combination post-exposure prophylaxis. J Infect 2001;43:12-18.
  52. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a dental practice. Ann In tern Med 1992;116:798-805.
  53. Investigations of patients who have been treated by HIV-infected health-care workers – United States. MMWR 199342329-331. 337.
  54. Investigation of patients of health care workers infected with HIV: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention database. Ann Intern Med 1995;40(No, RR-8).
  55. Guideline for infection control in health care personnel, 1998. Am J Infect Cont 1998;26:289-354.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.