The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 2 ( February, 2008 ) > List of Articles


Evaluating the Effect of a Sloping Shoulder and a Shoulder Bevel on the Marginal Integrity of Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal (PFM) Veneer Crowns

Ezzatollah Jalalian, Hamed Jannati, Maryam Mirzaei

Citation Information : Jalalian E, Jannati H, Mirzaei M. Evaluating the Effect of a Sloping Shoulder and a Shoulder Bevel on the Marginal Integrity of Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal (PFM) Veneer Crowns. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008; 9 (2):17-24.

DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-9-2-17

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-02-2008

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2008; The Author(s).



A porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) veneer crown restoration is considered successful when biological, mechanical, and esthetical concerns are satisfied. Restorations with poor marginal integrity may contribute to the cause of severe caries and periodontal defects. The most important factor in achieving successful marginal integrity is preparation design. Although a sloping shoulder preparation offers biologic and esthetic advantages over a shoulder bevel, a comparison of the marginal integrity of these two designs is less clear and is the main focus of this study.

Methods and Materials

This study was based on the analysis of 40 PFM veneer specimens fabricated on 20 stone dies. Each die had a beveled shoulder on one side of the preparation and a sloping shoulder design on the other. All specimens were selected and managed in an identical manner throughout the entire experimental process. All specimens were fabricated on stone dies made from a standard stainless steel die with the two shoulder designs in the preparation. Marginal integrity of the PFM veneers was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope to measure the gap between the restoration and tooth margin. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test at a significance level of p>0.05.


An average amount of gap (± SD) for the test groups were as follows: shoulder bevel, 40.78±18.4 microns; sloping shoulder, 52.8±27.4 microns (p>0.05). All the data were within acceptable clinical range and no significant difference between two preparation designs were observed.


Within the limitations of this study the marginal integrity of both preparation designs were found to be similar. Since the sloping shoulder design offers biological and esthetical advantages over the shoulder bevel, its use is indicated for anterior restorations.


Jalalian E, Jannati H, Mirzaei M. Evaluating the Effect of a Sloping Shoulder and a Shoulder Bevel on the Marginal Integrity of Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal (PFM) Veneer Crowns. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008 February;(9)2:017-024.

PDF Share
  1. An investigation of dental luting cement solubility as a function of the marginal gap. J Prosthet Dent. 1991 Mar;65(3):436-42.
  2. In vivo disintegration of luting cements. J Am Dent Assoc. 1987 Apr;114(4):489-92.
  3. Rational approach to tooth preparation for ceramo-metal restorations. Dent Clin North Am. 1977 Oct;21(4):683-98.
  4. Microleakage–full crowns and the dental pulp. J Endod. 1992 Oct;18(10):473-5.
  5. A pilot study of the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of glass-cermet cements. Quintessence Int. 1996 Jul;27(7):493-501.
  6. Clinical and microbiological effects of subgingival restorations with overhanging or clinically perfect margins. J Clin Periodontol. 1983 Nov;10(6):563-78.
  7. Unserviceable crowns and fixed partial dentures: life-span and causes for loss of serviceability. J Am Dent Assoc. 1970 Dec;81(6):1395-401.
  8. A survey of crown and fixed partial denture failures: length of service and reasons for replacement. J Prosthet Dent. 1986 Oct;56(4):416-21.
  9. Histologic considerations which concern where the margins of restoration should be located in relation to gingival. Dent Clin North Am 1960; 4:161-176.
  10. Reactions to marginal periodontal tissues to restorative procedures. Int Dent J. 1968 Dec;18(4):759-78.
  11. In vitro attachment of Streptococcus sanguis to dental crown and bridge cements. J Oral Rehabil. 1976 Apr;3(2):139-44.
  12. Communication between the oral cavity and the dental pulp associated with restorative treatment. Oper Dent. 1984 Spring;9(2):57-68.
  13. Marginal accuracy of complete crowns made from alternative casting alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 1991 Aug;66(2):157-64.
  14. Influence of finish-line geometry on the fit of crowns. Int J Prosthodont. 1993 Jan-Feb;6(1):25-30.
  15. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 4th Edition. Mosby/Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo. 2006;219-23.
  16. Evaluation of the 45-degree labial bevel with a shoulder preparation. J Prosthet Dent. 1986 Dec;56(6):655-61.
  17. The effect of various finish line preparations on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. J Prosthet Dent. 1981 Feb;45(2):138-45.
  18. Distortion related to margin design in porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. J Prosthet Dent. 1980 Feb;43(2):149-55.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.