The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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Volume 25, Number 1, January 2024
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HN Yukta, Dominic Augustine, SV Sowmya

Effect of Geographic Variation in Bioarcheology: A Forensic Odontology Perspective

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3630  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Jill C Watson, Wen Lien, Christopher J Raimondi, Stephen C Arnason, Kraig S Vandewalle

In Vitro Microleakage and Fracture Resistance of “Infinity Edge” and Cusp Reduction Preparation Designs for Moderate-sized Class II Composites

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:3 - 9]

Keywords: Composite restorations, Fracture resistance, Infinity edge, Microleakage

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3628  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the marginal microleakage and maximum occlusal fracture loads and fracture modes of two novel class II preparation designs, “infinity edge” and the “2.5 mm cusp reduction” preparations as compared to a traditional class II preparation without cuspal involvement. Materials and methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular molars were prepared for moderate-sized class II restorations with extensions into all occlusal grooves. Of these, ten class II preparations served as control. Ten were modified for a 2.5 mm even reduction of the cusps adjacent to the interproximal box. An additional 10 preparations were modified with an “infinity edge” bevel on the interproximal and occlusal portions. All teeth were restored utilizing a flowable bulk-fill composite in the apical portion of the interproximal box and 2–4 mm of heated bulk-fill composite in one increment for the remainder. All groups were cyclic loaded and thermocycled, then imaged with microcomputed tomography (µCT) before and after infiltration with a silver nitrate solution. Images were subtracted to obtain volumetric measurements of microleakage and reported as a percentage of the total volume from the apical extent of the proximal box. All groups were loaded to failure and fracture load and mode were recorded. Results: No significant differences were found in microleakage volume as a percentage of total tooth volume; however, the “infinity edge” group had significantly greater microleakage in the proximal box compared to the traditional class II group. No significant differences were found in fracture load or mode between the groups. Conclusion: Traditional class II, 2.5 mm cuspal reduction, and “infinity edge” preparation designs have similar fracture loads as well as volumes of microleakage; however, an “infinity edge” preparation has a higher ratio of microleakage in the proximal box. Clinical significance: Clinicians should carefully consider the use of “infinity edge” margins, particularly on dentin in the apical extent of the proximal box.



Renato SA Gouveia, Lívia LL Tostes, Fernanda V Bezerra, Alessandra K Dall Magro, Letícia C Dogenski, Isabela A Shimizu, Eduardo Dall'Magro, João P De Carli

High-frequency Ultrasound in the Assessment before and after Applying HArmonyCa™

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:10 - 14]

Keywords: Facial harmonization, Skin structure, Ultrasonography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3627  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To describe a clinical case of ultrasound (US) used to evaluate, before, post-immediately, and after 4 months, the facial application of a volumizing and biostimulating substance. Background: Detecting the behavior of injected filler materials with high-frequency US-guided application is the future of natural facial rejuvenation with more predictable and satisfactory results. Technique: A patient indicated for orofacial harmonization (OFH) procedures through volumizing and biostimulating material application was invited to participate. The technique was performed by applying HArmonyCa™ (Allergan Aesthetics, Irvine, CA, USA) in the gonial, preauricular, and bilateral lateral zygomatic angle regions. The first evaluations used the US images before and after product application with a Logiq e® high-frequency US device (GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) with a probe/linear transducer of 18 MHz. About 4 months after the procedure, a new assessment with the same initial acquisition pattern was performed. The first evaluation showed normal-looking anatomical structures without the esthetic material. Immediately after the procedure and 4 months later, the assessments presented semi-permanent esthetic fillers as dispersed lobulated hyperechogenic areas with a cloud aspect. Conclusion: High-frequency US was efficient in the static evaluation of HArmonyCa™ behavior on the facial skin. Clinical significance: The US-guided application of injectable products in specific areas has minimal side effects and contributes to more predictable and satisfactory results.



Michéle Paul Makhlouf, Joe David El Helou, Carla Elias Zogheib, Anne-Christelle Paul Makhlouf, Mariana Elie Karam, Issam Tanios Khalil

Comparative Evaluation of Push-out Bond Strength of Three Different Root Canal Sealers: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:15 - 19]

Keywords: BioRoot RCS, Calcium silicate-based sealer, K-Sealer, Push-out bond strength, Sealite Ultra, Zinc oxide-based sealer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3610  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this present study was to compare the dislodgement resistance of calcium silicate-based sealer, zinc oxide sealer, and a new sealer combining both zinc oxide and calcium silicate-based sealer in vitro. Materials and methods: 60 single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with F3 Protaper Gold. All endodontic canals were filled using gutta percha cones using the cold lateral condensation technique in combination using one of the mentioned sealers (n = 20 per group). The teeth were divided into three groups: group A consisted of Sealite® Ultra, group B consisted of K-Sealer®, and group C consisted of BioRoot® RC. After 2 months of incubation (37°C, 100% humidity) and after cutting out 2 mm from the most apical portion of the root apex, six slices of 1 mm thickness were generated. Mechanical dislodgement resistance was examined using a universal pressure-testing machine and the push-out bond strength (POBS) was calculated. Specimens were examined under 20× magnification to define the bond failure mode. Statistical analysis was executed using ANOVA, post hoc Turkey test for pairwise comparisons and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The POBS of BioRoot® was significantly higher than the POBS of the two other sealers with a mean of 10.54 MPa ± 2.10 and 5.73 MPa ± 2.34, respectively (p < 0.001). Sealite® and K-Sealer® showed similar results in the median and coronal part. K-Sealer® revealed highest POBS compared with Sealite® in the apical part (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The POBS of the zinc oxide and calcium silicate-based sealer was significantly lower compared with calcium silicate. Sealite® and K-Sealer® exhibited almost same results. BioRoot showed the highest POBS of all sealers. Clinical significance: The current study was needed to evaluate the bond strength of three different cements to dentinal walls, by evaluating their respective POBS in vitro. The findings of this study may provide guidance for the clinician in the selection of an adequate endodontic sealer that guarantees an enhanced adhesive seal between the Gutta-percha and the dentinal canal walls.



Ala Abdullah Aljubour, Medhat AbdElBaki, Omar El Meligy, Basma Al Jabri, Heba Sabbagh

Culturally Adapted Dental Visual Aids Effect on Behavior Management during Dental Visits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:20 - 28]

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Behavior management, Dental visual aids

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3620  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by unique behavioral patterns, treating children with ASD in the dental clinic has been a great challenge due to their behavior. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of culturally adapted dental visual aids in modifying behavior patterns during dental visits in children with ASD. Materials and methods: A controlled, blinded, randomized, clinical trial, with 64 children diagnosed with ASD, were randomly divided into two groups. The study took place between January 2019 and January 2021. The experimental group was provided with culturally adapted dental visual aids created especially for this research and the control group was provided with universal dental visual aids. The children's behavior patterns were evaluated before and after using the dental visual aids. SPSS v.25 was used to process all the data. Results: Behavior patterns have modified significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.001) however, it was statistically insignificant in the control group (p = 0.077). In terms of behavioral patterns, the experimental group outperformed the control group significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The culturally adapted dental visual aids have shown effectiveness in modifying behavior patterns in children diagnosed with ASD during dental visits. Clinical significance: By evaluating the impact of culturally adapted visual aids on behavior management, the study can enhance the accessibility and effectiveness of dental care for this vulnerable population, ultimately promoting better oral health outcomes and reducing potential trauma associated with dental visits for children with ASD.



Mohamed I Elmokadem, Khaled M Haggag, Hussein Ramadan Mohamed

Effect of Thermo-mechanical Cycling on Fracture Resistance of Different CAD/CAM Crowns: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:29 - 34]

Keywords: Ceramic-polymer, Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture, Composite resin, Fracture resistance, Thermo-mechanical cycling

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3619  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling (TMC) on fracture resistance of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) crowns. Materials and methods: A total of 42 CAD/CAM crowns were fabricated on epoxy resin maxillary first premolar teeth and divided into three groups (n = 14) according to the material used: IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) lithium disilicate (LD), Vita ENAMIC (VE) (VITA Zahnfabrik), Tetric CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent). Also, each group was subdivided into two equal subgroups according to TMC (n = 7). Subgroups (O) without TMC and subgroup (W) with TMC (5–55°C, 30 second, 75,000 cycles). All samples in each group were cemented with a universal bond (Tetric N bond universal) and adhesive resin cement (Variolink Esthetic DC) (Ivoclar Vivadent). Subsequently, the samples were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min, and the fracture pattern and the fracture resistance in each group were recorded. Results: Fracture resistance was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, followed by Tukey's post hoc test for pairwise comparison. Fracture resistance showed a significant difference between the tested groups before and after TMC; IPS e.max CAD has the highest value (1233.35 ± 97.72, 1165.73 ± 199.54 N) followed by Tetric CAD (927.62 ± 42.5, 992.04 ± 53.46 N) and Vita ENAMIC has lowest value (506.49 ± 74.24, 354.69 ± 90.36 N). Conclusion: Thermo-mechanical cycling affected the fracture resistance of both polymer-based CAD/CAM crowns. Clinical significance: For dental practitioners, both IPS e.max CAD and Tetric CAD can be used clinically for posterior teeth, providing satisfactory results and resistance to fracture.



Nimish Tyagi, Chandrakar Chaman, Siddharth Anand, Anjali Dhull, Ravi Prakash, Himanshu Tomar

Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement with ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:35 - 40]

Keywords: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA, Resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Shear bond strength, Universal testing machine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3611  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement with two different types of mineral trioxide aggregate at different time intervals. Materials and methods: A total of 80 cylindrical blocks were prepared using a self-cure acrylic resin with a central cavity of 4 mm internal diameter and 2 mm height. The prepared samples were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40 each) according to the type of MTA cements used (ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus). Two groups were further sub-divided into four sub-groups of 10 samples each according to the different time intervals. ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus were placed in the prepared cavity and a wet cotton pellet was placed over the filled cavity. A hollow plastic tube was placed over the MTA surface and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) was placed into the hollow plastic tube and light-cured (Spectrum 800, Dentsply Caulk Milford, DE, USA) according to the time intervals decided. After light curing the plastic tubes were removed carefully and the specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours to encourage setting of MTA. The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine (ADMET) and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min was applied to each specimen by using a knife-edge blade until the bond between the MTA and RMGIC failed. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, post hoc Tukey's t-test and Fisher's t-test and p-value ≤ 0.5 was considered significant. Results: For both ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus there was no statistically significant difference between 45 minutes and 24 hours (p-value ≥ 0.8). For ProRoot MTA, shear bond strength value at 10 minutes were significantly lower than 45 minutes and 24 hours group. However, for MTA Angelus, shear bond strength value at 10 minute was not significantly different from 45 minutes group (p-value ≥ 0.3). For both ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus shear bond strength value at 0 minute were the least and were significantly lower than 10 minutes, 45 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively (p-value ≥ 0.000). Conclusion: Resin-modified glass ionomer cement can be layered over MTA Angelus after it is allowed to set for 10 minutes. However, ProRoot MTA should be allowed to set for at least 45 minutes before the placement of RMGIC to achieve better shear bond strength. Clinical significance: Due to the variety of types of mineral trioxide aggregate cements available in dentistry, it is justifiable to emphasize on different time intervals as it may affect the shear bond strength of restorative cements. Such information is pivotal for the clinicians while using mineral aggregate-based cements that receive forces from the condensation of restorative materials or occlusion, as the compressive strength may be affected due to different time intervals.



Anisa H AlBadr, Nabeel F Talic

Correlating Frictional Forces Generated by Different Bracket Types during Sliding and Surface Topography Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Profilometer

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:11] [Pages No:41 - 51]

Keywords: Brackets, Ceramic, Kinetic friction, Monocrystalline, Orthodontics, Polycrystalline, Static friction, Surface roughness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3625  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study aims to correlate the frictional forces (FF) of four different types of commercially available ceramic brackets to their surface topography. Materials and methods: Two monocrystalline (MC) brackets (CLEAR™, Adanta, Germany; Inspire ICE™, Ormco, USA), one polycrystalline (PC) bracket (Symetri Clear™, Ormco, USA), one clear hybrid esthetic bracket (DISCREET™, Adanta, Germany), and a stainless-steel (SS) bracket (Victory™, 3M Unitek, USA) served as control. Both static friction (SF) and kinetic friction (KF) were recorded during sliding using an Instron universal machine in dry settings. The bracket slot surface topography was evaluated. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a profilometer machine were used for assessment before and after sliding. Results: Frictional forces values during sliding were as follows in descending order; Inspire ICE™, CLEAR™, DISCREET™, Symetri Clear™, and, lastly, Victory™. Also, DISCREET™ scored the highest in surface roughness (Sa) values followed by Symetri Clear™. None of the correlations were statistically significant. Conclusion: Frictional forces produced during sliding were not always directly related to surface roughness. Monocrystalline ceramic brackets appeared to have the greatest FF and a low surface roughness. Furthermore, DISCREET™ scored a very low frictional value comparable to metal brackets yet showed the highest surface roughness. Metal brackets exhibited the greatest surface smoothness before sliding and the least SF. Clinical significance: Predicting the FFs produced during sliding mechanics would help the practitioner while choosing the bracket system to be used, and while planning the treatment mechanics, how much force to deliver, and how much tooth movement to expect.



Alya H Alzarooni, Hatem M El-Damanhoury, Soumya S Aravind, Betul Rahman

Combined Effects of Glutaraldehyde-based Desensitizer and Nd: YAG Laser on Dentinal Tubules Occlusion

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:52 - 57]

Keywords: Dentinal hypersensitivity, Dentinal tubules, Desensitizing agents, Nd:YAG laser scanning electron microscopy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3623  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Nd:YAG laser, glutaraldehyde-based desensitizer (GD), or their combination on occluding dentinal tubules. Materials and methods: Fifty dentin samples were obtained from non-carious human third molars and randomly divided into five groups (n = 10): (1) Control group treated with 37% phosphoric acid, (2) GD group, (3) Nd:YAG laser group (1064 nm, 100 µs, 10 Hz, 300 µm fiber, 1 W power, 100 mJ energy, and 85 J/cm2 energy density), (4) GD followed by Nd:YAG laser group, and (5) Nd:YAG laser followed by GD group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to capture five images from each sample for analysis of dentinal tubules using Image J software. SEM/EDX elemental analysis was performed to determine the main mineral contents. Data analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test for statistical comparisons. Results: Laser and combination groups showed a significant decrease in dentinal tubule counts compared with the control and GD groups (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in open dentinal tubule counts between the control and GD groups, as well as between the laser and combination groups. However, significant differences were observed in the total area, average size of the tubules, and percentage area between the control group and the treatment groups (GD, laser, GD + laser, laser + GD). No significant difference was found in the Ca/P ratio between the tested groups. Conclusion: The use of Nd:YAG laser alone or in combination with GD was more effective in occluding dentinal tubules compared to GD alone. Clinical significance: This study has shown that Nd:YAG laser alone and in combination with GD has superior dentinal tubule occlusion in vitro. Its clinical use in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity may overcome the drawback of conventional treatment approaches for dentin hypersensitivity needing repeated applications to achieve continuous relief from pain since acidic diet and toothbrushing result in the continuing elimination of precipitates and surface coatings.



Abdulhamid Al Ghwainem, Adel S Alqarni

Comparative Assessment of Marginal Micro Leakage of Different Esthetic Restorative Materials Used on Primary Teeth: An In-vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:58 - 61]

Keywords: Class V cavity, Esthetic restorative materials, Micro leakage, Primary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3595  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of various esthetic restorative materials applied to primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 75 noncarious primary molars that were removed for orthodontic intervention and teeth nearing exfoliation were chosen. One millimeter (mm) above the cementoenamel junction, on the buccal surface of the teeth, Class V cavities were prepared. William's graded periodontal probe was used to standardize cavity preparation on all teeth. 3 mm was the cavity's length, 2 mm in width, and 2 mm in depth. The teeth were then divided into three groups (25 samples in each group) according to the type of esthetic restorative material used. Group I: Resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Group II: Ormocer, Group III: Giomer. The samples underwent 500 cycles of thermocycling, with an immersion time of 60 seconds and a well time of 15 seconds, between 5 and 55°C. The samples were submerged in methylene blue dye for 24 hours at room temperature and dried. The samples were then divided into sections and examined with a stereomicroscope. Data was recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The least marginal microleakage was found in the ormocer group (1.22 ± 0.01) followed by resin-modified glass ionomer cement group (1.31 ± 0.07) and the giomer group (1.78 ± 0.03). There was a highly statistically significant difference found between resin-modified glass ionomer cement group and the ormocer group, resin-modified glass ionomer cement group and giomer group. And no significant difference was found between the ormocer group and the giomer group. Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was some amount of microleakage in primary teeth in all restorative materials examined in this in-vitro investigation. However, the marginal sealing ability of ormocer was found highest compared to resin-modified glass ionomer cement and Giomer materials. Clinical significance: The primary reason dental restorations fail, particularly in Class V cavities, is microleakage since the margins of these restorations are typically found in the dentin or cementum. Assessing microleakage is a crucial step in determining the marginal integrity of restorative materials. Developing methods and resources that reduce the adverse effects caused by the restorative marginal seal failing would benefit from this.



Marwan Hamed Aljohani, Abdulbari Saleh Aljohani, Riyadh Mohammed Aljohani, Wahab Khalifah Alsharif, Ibrahim Nourwali, Shadia A Elsayed

Medical and Dental Professions’ Varying Levels of Awareness Regarding Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Saudi Arabia? A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:62 - 67]

Keywords: Bisphosphonate, BRONJ, General dental practitioner, Jaw necrosis, Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3622  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and primary care physicians (PCPs), focusing on the clinical implications and coordination of treating or identifying high-risk patients. Materials and methods: Two Google Forms electronic questionnaires were distributed to 724 GDPs and 617 PCPs in primary care settings. One for PCPs with eight multiple choice questions and the other for GDPs with 10 multiple choice questions. A clinical case scenario and a section on open-ended comments were included in both questionnaires. The data obtained from each group were statistically analyzed and compared. Results: A total of 239 GDPs and 220 PCPs participated in the study, with a response rate of 34.23%. The mean age of participants was 29.5 years and 54.35% were females (51.2% and 57.5% in the GDPs and PCPs group, respectively). Most participants had graduated from Saudi Arabia. Almost all dentists were aware of osteonecrosis of the jaw (95.1%), 68.3% of them were aware of the guidelines regarding bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and MRONJ, 60.5% rated their general knowledge about MRONJ as very poor to poor, and 91.8% did not know any guidelines regarding BRONJ or MRONJ. Among the participants, 75.3% did not know how MRONJ was present in the oral cavity. A total of 69.9% of participants were unaware of other factors associated with an increased risk of MRONJ. Conclusion: MRONJ risk awareness varies greatly between dentists who diagnose and manage patients in dental clinics and physicians who write about medicines and therapies. Counseling sessions and greater coordination between dental and medical specialists are strongly suggested while prescribing antiresorptive drugs to prevent the consequent development of MRONJ. Clinical significance: This study shows a significant lack of knowledge regarding MRONJ among GDPs and PCPs, which may affect the prevention and treatment of patients. Therefore, we urge GDPS and PCPs to take more information from scientific sources on this topic and more cooperation from specialties for the benefit of patients.



Debasish Mishra, Dinesh Govinda Kamath, Maram Alagla, Shuhaib Abdul Rahman, Reshma Amin, Hina Ahmed, Gautam Singh, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Apathsakayan Renugalakshmi

Evaluation of Stain Removal Efficacy and Color Stability of Three Different Dentifrices on Artificially Stained Enamel Surface—An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:68 - 71]

Keywords: Color stability, Dentifrices, Stain, Toothbrushing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3594  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the stain removal ability and color stability of three distinct dentifrices on artificially stained enamel surface. Materials and methods: This study included 75 intact, healthy premolars free of dental caries that were extracted during orthodontic therapy. The samples were allowed to dry for 6 hours after being submerged in the prepared tea solution for roughly 18 hours every day. Then this procedure was repeated for seven successive days. All samples were randomly divided into three experimental groups with 25 samples in each group. Group I: control dentifrice, group II: dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide, group III: dentifrice containing papain and bromelain. A specially designed toothbrushing simulator was used to brush every sample in the relevant group. Using a spectrophotometer and a measurement program, color measurement was evaluated after staining process after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of teeth cleaning. Using a profilometer, the surface roughness values (Ra) were assessed. Results: After 8 weeks of brushing of stained samples, the color stability was better in dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide (1.14 ± 0.11) followed by dentifrice containing papain and bromelain (1.22 ± 0.08) and control group (1.30 ± 0.09). And after 8 weeks of brushing of stained samples, the surface roughness was more in dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide (0.237 ± 0.02) followed by dentifrice containing papain and bromelain (0.229 ± 0.13) and control group (0.207 ± 0.05). Conclusion: The present study concluded that the dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide showed a superior whitening effect on the stained enamel surface than dentifrice containing papain and bromelain and control dentifrice. Clinical significance: The development of various dentifrice products has been greatly aided by the increased demand for an improved esthetic appearance. Teeth's natural color and any external stains that could accumulate on the tooth surface combine to determine a tooth's color. Additionally, the use of whitening dental pastes to remove external stains has grown in favor. With the development of these whitening toothpastes, dentifrices’ ability to lessen or eliminate extrinsic dental stains has increased.



Mohamed Sayed, Ahmad M Alahmad, Khaled S Alhajji, Abdullah Y Alenezi, Mohamed Atif Elkholy, Mohamed Abdel Rahman El Shreif, Rehab Ali Farag, Doaa Gamal Basta, Hazar Rifai, Mohammad Rayyan

Removal Efficiency and Effectiveness of Four Different Fiber Posts Using Five Different Drill Systems in Multirooted Teeth

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:72 - 78]

Keywords: Easy removal fiber posts, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Fiber post, Removal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3629  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: In comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of different types of post removal systems in removing different types of fiber posts (FPs), this study aims to shed light on the success of removal by currently available drill systems. Materials and methods: A total of 200 maxillary first molars, were root canal treated and prepared to receive posts. The molars were divided into four groups corresponding to four different FPs: Group RX, Radix FP; Group RF, Reforpost Glass Fiber; Group HI; Hi-Rem Endodontic Post; and Group DT, D.T. Light-Post Illusion X-RO. Fiber posts were done with luting by Gradia Core (GC America, Inc.). Groups were again divided into five subgroups corresponding to the technique by which the FP was removed into as follows: Subgroup P, PD-25-1.1 Drill; subgroup G, GC FP Drill; subgroup E, EasyPost Precision Drill; subgroup R, Reaccess Carbide Double Taper Kit; and subgroup H; H-Endodontic Drill. After posts were removed, effectiveness and efficiency were documented. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Strong significant differences regarding efficiency among groups (FP type) and subgroups (drills used) (p = 0.00) were shown by the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Subgroup DT-G scored the longest mean removal time (20.9 minutes) while Subgroup RX-R scored the shortest mean removal time (1.4 minutes) Regarding effectiveness, strong significant differences among groups (p = 0.00) and subgroups (p = 0.00) were shown by one-way ANOVA. Subgroup RF-G scored the highest scale (5.2) whereas subgroup HI-R scored the lowest mean scale (1.2). Conclusion: The difference was strongly significant between tested post-removal kits and between tested FPs. Re-access Carbide Double Taper Kit performed superiorly in both effectiveness and efficiency, followed by PD-25-1.1 Drill. Hi-Rem post showed the best retrieving results among other FPs. Clinical significance: Knowing the best technique and tools for post removal could spare the practitioner any unwanted complications during post removal.



Mahnaz Golrezaei, Hossein Ali Mahgoli, Negin Yaghoobi, Somayeh Niakan

The Effect of Modified Framework Design on the Fracture Resistance of IPS e.max Press Crown after Thermocycling and Cyclic Loading

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:79 - 84]

Keywords: Dental porcelain, Dental prosthesis design, Incisor

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3621  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of modified framework (MF) design on the fracture resistance of IPS e.max Press anterior single crown after thermocycling and cyclic loading. Materials and methods: Two types of IPS e.max Press frameworks were designed (n = 10); standard framework (SF) with a 0.5 mm uniform thickness and MF with a lingual margin of 1 mm in thickness and 2 mm in height connected to a proximal strut of 4 mm height and a 0.3 mm wide facial collar. The crowns were cemented to resin dies, subjected to 5,000 cycles of thermocycling, and loaded 10,000 cycles at 100 N. A universal testing machine was used to load specimens to fracture, and the modes of failure were determined. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD) of fracture resistance were 219.24 ± 110.00 N and 216.54 ±120.02 N in the SF and MF groups. Thus, there was no significant difference (p = 0.96). Mixed fracture was the most common failure mode in both groups. We found no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.58). Conclusion: The MF design did not increase the fracture resistance of IPS e.max Press crown. Clinical significance: Framework design is an essential factor for the success of all-ceramic restorations and its modification might be regarded as an approach to increase fracture resistance. Furthermore, the modified design was evaluated in metal–ceramic or zirconia crowns while less attention was paid to the IPS e.max Press crowns.



Mebin George Mathew, Ganesh Jeevanandan, Prabhadevi C Maganur, Ahmed Ali Tamah, Yaqoub Ahmed Ayyashi, Abdullah Ibrahim Tawhari, Satish Vishwanathaiah

Evaluation of Risk Factors associated with Caries Development after Full-mouth Rehabilitation for Early Childhood Caries Under General Anesthesia

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:85 - 91]

Keywords: Caries risk assessment, Cariogram, Early childhood caries, General anesthesia, Relapse

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3600  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the risk factors associated with caries development after full-mouth rehabilitation for early childhood caries (ECC) under general anesthesia. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children diagnosed with ECC requiring full-mouth rehabilitation under general anesthesia were recruited for the study. At baseline, caries status, plaque index, Streptococcus mutans count, and Lactobacillus count were evaluated. The risk assessment for caries was evaluated using a cariogram. Children were recalled after 12 months for evaluation. All children returned for the recall and data was recorded at the recall visit. Children were grouped into caries-free or caries recurrent based on the absence or presence of caries. Chi-square tests and student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), version 23. Results: All 100 children returned for follow-up. 76% of the children developed new carious lesions in a period of 1 year. A statistically significant association between caries recurrence and S. mutans count and caries risk assessment (CRA) score was found (p < 0.001). No significant associations were seen between parental education levels and the oral health practices of the child. Conclusion: Children treated under full-mouth rehabilitation for ECC under general anesthesia are at risk for developing new carious lesions after treatment. New carious lesions are strongly correlated with the presence of S. mutans, and high cariographic risk scores serve as an indication of future caries. Early childhood caries may be avoided if children are more diligent in practicing good dental hygiene. Clinical significance: Relapse of caries after full-mouth rehabilitation under general anesthesia can affect the quality of life of children. Preventive measures should be initiated and reinforced to prevent the occurrence of new carious lesions after full-mouth rehabilitation.



Loai Alsofi, Sara Almarzouki

Failed Regenerative Endodontic Case Treated by Modified Aspiration-irrigation Technique and Apexification

[Year:2024] [Month:January] [Volume:25] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:92 - 97]

Keywords: Apexification, Aspiration-irrigation technique, Case report, Non-vital tooth, Open apex, Persistent cystic lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3601  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This report addresses the management of a large persistent discharging lesion in an 11-year-old boy. The report describes the use of aspiration-irrigation technique for the management of immature necrotic tooth with persistent discharge after a failed regenerative procedure. Background: Regenerative endodontics aim to provide an increase in root canal width, length, and in apical closure. Alternative procedures, such as apexification, should be attempted when regeneration fails. If the canal cannot be dried to persistent discharge, the aspiration-irrigation technique can be used. The technique relies on using aspiration along with irrigation to remove pus from the periapical area. Case description: This is a case for an 11-year-old patient who had trauma to tooth #11, which resulted in the complicated crown fracture. He had an emergency management that included pulpectomy and intracanal medication at another clinic. Two years later, the patient was presented to our clinic. Upon examination, the diagnosis was previously initiated therapy with asymptomatic apical periodontitis in immature tooth #11. Regeneration was attempted first but failed. The mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug was removed, and the canal had persistent pus discharge. The canal was filled with intracanal medication, and then 2 weeks later, the canal was filled with triple antibiotic paste (TAP). Next visit, and due to continuous discharge, tooth #11 was treated conservatively with an intracanal aspiration-irrigation technique. An IrriFlex needle attached to a high-volume suction was used to aspirate the cystic fluid. Mineral trioxide aggregate plug apexification was performed in a later visit and the tooth was restored. Conclusion: During the 3-month and 16-month follow-up, there was resolution of the symptoms, a decrease in the periapical lesion size, and soft tissues appeared within normal limits. Clinical significance: Regenerative procedures are a good option for immature necrotic teeth. These procedures may fail due to persistent pus discharge from the root canals. The aspiration-irrigation technique is a good treatment option in cases of consciously discharging canals.


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