The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2011 | January-February | Volume 12 | Issue 1

EDITORIAL

Raghunath Puttaiah

Continuity during Changing Times

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-12-1-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

Ilser Turkyilmaz

Coming out of its ashes…

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-12-1-ii  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Raghunath Puttaiah, Kierste Miller, Raman Bedi, Sadashiva Shetty, Khalid Almas, Edwin Tse, Byoung Ock Kim, Dennis Youngblood, Du Minquan

Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Dental Safety from Eight Countries at the Turn of the Century

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1 - 7]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1001  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To compare infection control (IC) knowledge, attitudes and practice of dentists across eight countries.

Methods

Self-administered infection control surveys were completed by 1,874 clinicians in eight countries. Practitioner's knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control were examined using over 100 variables. Chi-squared statistics (á = 0.05) were used to compare respondents from different national groups.

Results

Immunizations rates varied significantly across the eight countries (p < 0.01) with Asian countries having a lower rate of immunization against HBV than the United States practitioners. Perceived risk of acquiring HIV varied significantly across the study groups (p < 0.01); China had the lowest portion (75%). Dentists in the US reported 92% surface barrier use; only 15% in China reported use. Only 58% of practitioners in Pakistan reportedly used disposable exam gloves; 97% of US practitioners regularly use these gloves. For all groups assessed, including the United States, little over 50% of practitioners understood and practiced Universal/Standard (UP/SP) precautions effectively.

Conclusion: Analyses from this study suggest that the dental IC knowledge and practice varied widely across the eight countries of interest. Many of the countries were found to have barriers to access IC materials. Results indicate that all eight countries could use improved education standards for universal precautions.

Clinical significance: Knowledge, attitudes and practice of dental safety vary in different parts of the world. This study compares the compliance rates in dental safety among countries and pegs them to the level of practice in the United States. This study also provides evidence-based data on the needs in the regions surveyed and could be used to implement remedial educational measures in improving safe practices.

How to cite this article: Puttaiah R, Miller K, Bedi R, Shetty S, Almas K, Tse E, Kim BO, Youngblood D, Minquan D. Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Dental Safety from Eight Countries at the Turn of the Century. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):1-7.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nafiseh Dastmalchi, Zeinab Kazemi, Siroos Hashemi, Ove A Peters, Hamid Jafarzadeh

Definition and Endodontic Treatment of Dilacerated Canals: A Survey of Diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:8 - 13]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1002  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To gather data from Diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics regarding treatment of dilacerated canals.

Materials and methods

A questionnaire addressing definition, endodontic treatment procedures and prognosis was constructed and distributed via e-mail to 708 Diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics. Data from 150 respondents, a 21% response rate, were collected by using a Web-based interface. For statistical analysis, Chi-square tests were used.

Results

More than 25% of respondents believed that a dilacerated root should have a curvature > 40°. One-visit treatment is the best therapeutic approach and transportation is the most likely complication in preparation of these canals. A crown-down technique, watch-winding motion and a master apical file # 25 are the best choices for preparation of these canals. Any warm obturation technique is preferred over lateral compaction by most respondents.

Conclusion

A crown-down technique for root canal preparation and a thermoplastic obturation technique are recommended for canals whose curvature is more than 40°. The prognosis of the treatment of these canals is judged not lower than normal canals.

Clinical significance

Crown-down technique and thermoplastic obturation are recommended for dilacerated canals.

How to cite this article

Dastmalchi N, Kazemi Z, Hashemi S Peters OA, Jafarzadeh H. Definition and Endodontic Treatment of Dilacerated Canals: A Survey of Diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):8-13.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

G Anil Kumar, Amit Maheshwari

A Retrospective Cephalometric Evaluation of Dental Changes with Activator and Activator Headgear Combination in the Treatment of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:14 - 18]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1003  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aims of this study were to evaluate the dental changes brought about by activator and activator headgear combination (ACHG) and to determine whether we can achieve control over the lower incisor proclination which is a side effect of using functional appliances; or not, while treating cases of skeletal class II malocclusions.

Methods

Lateral cephalograms of 45 skeletal class II division 1 patients were selected for the study. Fifteen of them were successfully treated with an Andresen activator and the other 15 with an activator headgear combination. Fifteen class II subjects who had declined treatment served as the control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked by one author to avoid interobserver variability.

Results

The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (p < 0.001) affected dental variables measured. The mandibular incisor proclination was effectively controlled in the activator headgear combination group.

Conclusion

An activator headgear combination would offer itself as a better option compared with activator alone in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusions especially in cases with proclined mandibular incisors.

Clinical significance

When one of the treatment goals is to achieve a greater control over mandibular incisor proclination in the treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusions, employing a combination of activator and headgear may substantially improve clinical outcomes.

How to cite this article

Lall R, Kumar GA, Maheshwari A Kumar M. A Retrospective Cephalometric Evaluation of Dental Changes with Activator and Activator Headgear Combination in the Treatment of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):14-18.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Carmen Llena, Esther Lozano, Jose Amengual, Leopoldo Forner

Reliability of Two Color Selection Devices in Matching and Measuring Tooth Color

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:19 - 23]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1004  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate the intra and interdevice reliability of two tooth color measurement devices: EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM).

Materials and methods

Tooth color was measured in six maxillary and mandibular. L*, a* and b* values and shade matches to VITA Classical and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide systems were determined for all teeth. ÄE was assessed. Paired t-test and correlation coefficient (ICC) were used.

Results

Intradevices no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between L*, a*, b*. Interdevice L* and b* were significantly higher for ES (p < 0.05), while a* was significantly higher for SSM (p < 0.05). ÄE showed no significant interdevice difference (p > 0.05). Intradevices ICC values were higher for ES but not significant (p > 0.05).

Discussion

The null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring within devices or shade systems is accepted, but the results allow to reject the null hypotheses that they present no differences in their color measuring or shade systems between devices.

Conclusion

Both EasyShade (ES) and SpectroShade Micro (SSM) show excellent repeatability and so they can be used in office to evaluate tooth color or to assess color changes after treatment.

Clinical significance

Dental color can be diagnosed using dental spectrophotometers, allowing to detect in an objective way therapeutic dental color changes.

How to cite this article

Llena C, Lozano E, Amengual J Forner L. Reliability of Two Color Selection Devices in Matching and Measuring Tooth Color. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011; 12(1):19-23.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Paranjay Prajapati, Rajesh Sethuraman, YG Naveen

A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Upper Lip Length, Age and Sex on Amount of Exposure of Maxillary Anterior Teeth

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:24 - 29]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1005  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim was to evaluate the relationship of age, sex and lip length to the amount of exposure of maxillary incisors and canine teeth.

Materials and methods

Two-hundred subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were grouped according to the lip length and age. The exposure of maxillary central incisor and canines was measured with flexible millimeter ruler. Teeth exposure beyond the lower border of the upper lip was considered as positive exposure and the unexposed teeth were considered as negative exposure.

Result

In females of age group 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49 and 50 to 59 years, the mean exposure of central incisor was 2.16, 2.1, 2.18 mm and that of canine was 0.04, −0.36, −0.44 mm. For male of age group 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49 and 50 to 59 years exposed 2.04, 2.04, 1.84, 1.76 mm of central incisor respectively and 0.08, −0.52, −0.4 and −0.4 mm exposure of canine. Female subjects with lip length 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 21 to 25, 25 to 30 and 31 to 35 mm showed 3.7, 3.4, 2.3, 0.9, 0.25 mm exposure of central incisor and 0.35, −0.15, −0.7, −0.8, −0.6 mm exposure of canine, respectively. Male subjects exposed 3.4, 3.3, 2.05, 0.7, 0.15 mm of central incisor and 0.4, 0.3, −0.6, −0.95, −0.7 mm of canine respective to lip length.

Conclusion

The range of exposure of maxillary central incisors was wider than that of canine. The average dimensions for maxillary canines relating to age and sex were closer to the extremes of the range. The canine position relative to the maxillary lip appeared to be a more predictable determinant.

Clinical significance

The result of the study can be used as a reference according to the age, sex and the lip length of the patient to correctly place maxillary anterior teeth in prosthesis.

How to cite this article

Patel JR, Prajapati P, Sethuraman R YG N. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Upper Lip Length Age and Sex on Amount of Exposure of Maxillary Anterior Teeth. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):24-29.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Parnian Alizadeh Oskoee, Mohammad Esmaeel Ebrahimi Chaharom, Soodabeh Kimyai, Jafar Sadjadi Oskoee, Sahar Varasteh

Effect of Two Types of Composite Fibers on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Premolars: An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:30 - 34]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1006  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of composite fibers (glass fiber and polyethylene fiber) at the gingival third of mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) cavities on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars.

Materials and methods

A total of 45 extracted premolars underwent endodontic treatment. MOD cavities, 2.5 ± 0.2 mm thick at the buccal and lingual heights of contour, were prepared, with the gingival cavosurface margin 1.5 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups. In group 1, the cavities were restored with Z250 composite resin without the use of any fibers. In groups 2 and 3, the teeth were restored in the same manner as that in group 1 after placement of glass fiber and polyethylene fiber at the gingival third of the cavities, respectively. Subsequent to thermocycling, fracture resistance of the specimens was measured in Newton (N).

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at a significance level of p < 0.05.

Results

There were significant differences in the means of fracture resistance values between the three groups (p = 0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed in the fracture resistance between group 2 and groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.05). However, the differences between groups 1 and 3 were not significant (p = 0.25).

Conclusion

The type of fiber influenced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated human premolars.

Clinical significance

Using glass and/or polyethylene fibers in the gingival third of composite restorations leads to different results in fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars.

How to cite this article

Oskoee PA, Chaharom MEE, Kimyai S, Oskoee JS, Varasteh S. Effect of Two Types of Composite Fibers on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Premolars: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):30-34.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anand Patil, Rakshith Guru, Mohammed Saleem, Rajeev Singh

Microbiological Appraisal of Three Different Brands of Commercially Available Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Materials: An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:35 - 40]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1007  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate factory-sealed containers of three different commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials for their microbial contamination and the type of microorganisms present.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six measured samples were taken of each brand and placed on chocolate agar plates or in thioglycolate broth tubes and were incubated along with appropriate parallel controls. After incubation, colonies were enumerated and identified using standard microbiological methods.

Results

The three brands contained viable microorganisms in 90% of the samples. Samples from the top, middle and bottom layers had approximately equal contamination frequencies. The concentration of organism varied from 25 to 74 CFUs per gram of contaminated sample.

Conclusion and clinical significance

The samples contained viable microorganism which may be potentially dangerous to immunocompromised patients.

How to cite this article

Guru R, Saleem M, Singh R, Patil A. Microbiological Appraisal of Three Different Brands of Commercially Available Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Materials: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):35-40.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sayed Mostafa Mousavinasab, Maryam Khoroushi, Fateme Keshani, Shirin Hashemi

Flexural Strength and Morphological Characteristics of Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Containing Bioactive Glass

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:41 - 46]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1008  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Recent advances in dental materials have led to the production of smart materials. Recently, addition of bioactive materials to glass-ionomer cements has resulted in new capabilities beyond the beneficial effects of fluoride release. This in vitro study compared the flexural strengths (FS) of a resin-modified glass-ionomer containing bioactive glass (RMGIBAG) with that of a commonly used resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI).

Methods and materials

A total of forty RMGI and RMGI-BAG bars (20 × 4 × 4 mm) were prepared in stainless steel molds. Each of the RMGI and RMGI-BAG bars was set for FS test. FS values of the specimens were measured using three-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The surface changes and the amounts of elements on the materials’ surfaces were also evaluated by SEM/EDS analyses. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 and t-test (a = 0.05).

Results

The means ± SD in the study groups were 61.46 ± 22.52 and 39.90 ± 9.11 MPa respectively. There were significant differences between FS of the two study groups (p = 0.003).

Conclusion

While adding 20 wt% of BAG to the RMGI powder evaluated in this study decreases FS of the material significantly, the mean value of FS is in the acceptable range of the reported FS values for conventional GIs and RMGIs that are commercially available for clinical use.

Clinical significance

While flexural strength of RMGI decreases subsequent to addition of bioactive glass, it is still clinically acceptable considering the flexural strength values reported for clinically used GIs and RMGIs. Further studies are recommended.

How to cite this article

Mousavinasab SM, Khoroushi M, Keshani F, Hashemi S. Flexural Strength and Morphological Characteristics of Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Containing Bioactive Glass. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):41-46.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mustafa Murat Koçak, G Şahinkesen, EA Oktay, Ö Er, A Kiliç

Evaluation of Residual Antimicrobial Effects and Surface Changes of Gutta-Percha disinfected with Different Solutions

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:47 - 51]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1009  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To determine the possible residual antibacterial effects and possible surface changes caused by 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 0.05% Octenisept on in vitro gutta-percha points after different disinfection protocols.

Materials and methods

A total of 121 standard # 40, 0.2% gutta-percha cones were cut 10 mm from the tip, sterilized with ethylene oxide. The samples were divided into five groups, and each group was divided into three subgroups according to immersion periods of gutta-percha cones into solutions. One gutta-percha cone from each group was selected for SEM evaluation.

Results

All of the tested solutions were effective on the selected microorganisms when compared with the control solution. No surface alterations were detected on the gutta-percha cones.

Conclusion

In the limits of this study, immersion of gutta-percha into 2% CHX for one minute was found the most effective method to eliminate the selected microorganisms.

Clinical significance

Although gutta-percha points are aseptic in their package, once opened and used, gutta-percha cones may be contaminated. In order to eliminate bacteria and not to cause surface changes on gutta-percha cones, disinfection solution must be selected carefully.

How to cite this article

Ôahinkesen G, Oktay EA, Er _, Koçak MM, Kiliç A. Evaluation of Residual Antimicrobial Effects and Surface Changes of Gutta-Percha disinfected with Different Solutions. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):47-51.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

AU Chaudhari, GN Byakod, PF Waghmare, VM Karhadkar

Correlation of Levels of Interleukin-1β in Gingival Crevicular Fluid to the Clinical Parameters of Chronic Periodontitis

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:52 - 59]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1010  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Background and objectives: IL-1β is a potent stimulator of bone resorption and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the levels of IL-1β of chronic periodontitis patients with the healthy subjects. Another objective of this study was to correlate IL-1β levels with the clinical parameters of the periodontal disease progression.

Methods

For this study, total 60 subjects were chosen (30- healthy and 30-chronic periodontitis). Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival index (GI), periodontal disease index (PDI), probing depth (PD), tooth mobility, bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded for all the subject. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected and subjected for ELISA for estimation of IL-1β

Results

At the periodontal diseased sites, the IL-1β levels increased at least 2-fold as compared with healthy subjects. This increase was highly significant (p = 0.0000). Within the test group, IL-1β levels correlated positively and significantly with PDI, PD, BOP and tooth mobility. The correlations of IL-1β with PD (p = 0.000) and IL-1β with BOP (p = 0.0004) were highly significant.

Interpretation and conclusion

These data suggest that amount of GCF IL-1β is closely associated with periodontal status. This relationship may be valuable in monitoring periodontal disease activity.

Clinical significance

It could be stated from this study on IL- 1β that there seem to be a strong correlation between periodontal tissue destruction and IL-1β. Furthermore IL-1β level could also differentiate between active and inactive periodontal lesions.

How to cite this article

Chaudhari AU, Byakod GN, Waghmare PF, Karhadkar VM. Correlation of Levels of Interleukin-1β in Gingival Crevicular Fluid to the Clinical Parameters of Chronic Periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):52-59.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sarah Pollington

Novel Glass-Ceramics for Dental Restorations

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:60 - 67]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1011  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

There are many different ceramic systems available on the market for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are a popular choice due to their excellent esthetics and ability to bond to tooth structure allowing a more conservative approach. However, at present, these materials have insufficient strength to be used reliably in posterior regions of the mouth.

Purpose

The aim of this review article is to discuss the types of novel glass-ceramic currently be investigated including composition, microstructure and properties.

Conclusion

Current research in glass-ceramics focuses on the quest for a highly esthetic material along with sufficient strength to enable crowns and bridgework to be reliably placed in these areas.

Clinical significance

There is a gap in the market for a machinable resin bonded glass-ceramic with sufficient strength as well as excellent esthetics.

How to cite this article

Pollington S. Novel Glass-Ceramics for Dental Restorations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1): 60-67.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Adriana Cristina Zavanelli, José Vitor Quinelli Mazaro, Sandra Rahal Mestrener, Recardo Alexandre Zavanelli

Functional and Esthetic Rehabilitation with In-Ceram Alumina and Zirconia System: A Multidisciplinary Approach

[Year:2011] [Month:January-February] [Volume:12] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:68 - 72]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1012  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical significance

The interaction between periodontics and fixed prosthodontic area is the key of an adequated treatment planning which involves gingival smile to provide function and an esthetic condition in association with an esthetic, resistant and predictable material.

How to cite this article

Zavanelli AC, Mazaro JVQ, Mestrener SR, Zavanelli RA. Functional and Esthetic Rehabilitation with In-Ceram Alumina and Zirconia System: A Multidisciplinary Approach. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(1):68-72.

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