The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2011 | March-April | Volume 12 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Raghunath Puttaiah

Essentials of Safe Dental Care

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-12-2-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Raghunath Puttaiah, Ritu Bansal, Robert Harris, Anil Reddy

Evaluation of Two Methods in Controlling Dental Treatment Water Contamination

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:11] [Pages No:73 - 83]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1013  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical significance

This study provides evidence-based information of using two methods of controlling dental treatment water contamination. The study was conducted in a clinical practice setting in an active dental clinic and the results are meaningful to a clinician who is interested in providing safe dental treatment water for patient care.

How to cite this article

Bansal R, Puttaiah R, Harris R, Reddy A. Evaluation of Two Methods in Controlling Dental Treatment Water Contamination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Parsa Atashrazm, Leila Zamani Alavijeh, Maryam Sadat Sadrzadeh Afshar

Influence of the Fast-processing Technique on the Number of the Occlusal Contacts and Occlusal Vertical Dimension of Complete Dentures

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:84 - 90]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1014  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Occlusal errors during acryl processing affect the retention and stability of complete dentures. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of a short curing technique on the number of occlusal contacts and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) of complete dentures.

Materials and methods

Complete dentures were prepared. The number of occlusal contacts was recorded in centric relation (CR) using 60 ì articulation paper. The OVD was recorded with the waxed trial denture in place. Dentures were then invested and processed with compression molding and short cure water bath technique. The number of occlusal contacts was recorded again. The amount of pin opening was measured for all of the complete dentures on the articulator. Data were analyzed with paired t-test to determine the alterations.

Results

The mean number of occlusal contacts before and after processing was 10.9 ± 2.4 and 6.3 ± 3.1 respectively (4.7 ± 1.9 decrease; p < 0.001). A 2 mm mean increase in OVD was observed in 47.7% of the dentures with < 6 occlusal contact changes and 88.9% of the dentures with > 6 occlusal contact changes (p < 0.003). A significant change in the number of occlusal contacts was associated with an OVD increased up to two times.

Conclusion

The short curing technique seems to be related to the decreased occlusal contacts and increased OVD.

Clinical significances

More time is needed to adjust the occlusal errors of this method, because it has a negative effect on the morphologic pattern of artificial teeth of complete dentures and thus should be used carefully.

How to cite this article

Atashrazm P, Alavijeh LZ, Afshar MSS. Influence of the Fast-processing Technique on the Number of the Occlusal Contacts and Occlusal vertical Dimension of Complete Dentures. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):84-90.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Avinash Kumar, Nadeem Husain

Frictional Resistance between Orthodontic Brackets and Archwire: An in vitro Study

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:91 - 99]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1015  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the kinetic frictional resistance offered by stainless steel and Titanium bracket used in combination with rectangular stainless steel wire during in vitro translatory displacement of brackets.

Materials and methods

In this study. Brackets: (All brackets used had a torque of – 7° and an angulation of 0°): (1) Dynalock (Unitek) 0.018” slot, 3.3 mm bracket width, (2) Mini Uni-Twin (Unitek) 0.018” slot, 1.6 mm bracket width, (3) Ultra-Minitrim (Dentaurum) 0.022” slot 3.3 mm bracket width, (4) Titanium (Dentaurum) 0.022” slot, 3.3 mm bracket width. WIRES: (1) 0.016 × 0.022” stainless steel (Dentaurum), (2) 0.017 × 0.025’'stainless steel (Unitek), (3) 0.018 × 0.025” stainless steel (Dentaurum), elastomeric modules (Ortho Organisers), 0. 009” stainless steel ligature wires, hooks made of 0.021 × 0.025” stainless steel wires, super glue to bond the hooks to the base of the bracket, acetone to condition the bracket and wires before testing and artificial saliva. Brackets were moved along the wire by means of an Instron universal testing machine (1101) and forces were measured by a load cell. All values were recorded in Newtons and then converted into gms (1N-102 gm). 200 gm was then subtracted from these values to find out the frictional force for each archwire/bracket combination. For each archwire/ bracket combination three readings were taken under wet and dry condition and also with stainless steel ligature and elastomeric modules separately.

Results

The results showed that narrow brackets generated more friction than wider brackets. Frictional force was directly proportional to wire dimension. Titanium brackets generated more friction than stainless steel brackets. Archwire and bracket ligated with elastomeric module generated more friction than when ligated with stainless steel ligature wire. Frictional forces in the wet condition were greater than in the dry condition for all archwire to bracket combinations.

Conclusion

Frictional force was seen to be inversely proportional to bracket width, frictional force was inversely proportional to bracket width, and in the wet condition were greater than in the dry condition for all archwire to bracket combinations.

Clinical significance

This study of friction is its role in lessening the force actually received by a tooth from an active component such as a spring, loop or elastic. Hence greater applied force is needed to move a tooth with a bracket archwire combination demonstrating high magnitudes of friction compared with one with a low frictional value.

How to cite this article

Husain N, Kumar A. Frictional Resistance between Orthodontic Brackets and Archwire: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):91-99.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Juliana L Schussel, Roberta T Stramandinoli, Jose Luis Dissenha, Lucia FC Avila, Laurindo M Sassi

Retrospective Study of 25 Cases of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Epidemiology and Treatment

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:100 - 103]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1016  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) is a benign odontogenic neoplasm with locally aggressive behavior and high recurrence rates. It is associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome which usually has a more rapid growth. The aim of the study is to report the experience of our service on diagnosis and treatment of KOT.

Materials and methods

Twenty-five cases of KOT were diagnosed between the years of 1989 and 2006. Demographic data was collected as well as diagnose and treatment.

Results

Fifty-six percent were female with a mean age of 33 years old. Seventy percent occurred in mandibula and all received surgical treatment, associate or not with adjuvant therapy, such as cryotherapy and Carnoy's solution. Recidive was observed in 48% of cases with a mean period of time of 18 months.

Conclusion

Our data analysis showed the importance of previous diagnosis before enucleation procedure and long-term follow-up for recurrence early detection. Recurrence incidence is more frequent on first year after diagnosis.

Clinical significance

KOT is a benign tumor with local aggressive behavior and therefore its treatment must consider the high index of recidive. Reports of protocol treatment should raise new discussion to decrease recurrence rates.

How to cite this article

Schussel JL, Stramandinoli RT, Dissenha JL, Avila LFC, Sassi LM. Retrospective Study of 25 Cases of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Epidemiology and Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):100-103.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anirudh K Mathur, Anirban Sarmah, Vinaya S Pai, G Chandrashekar

Apical Force Distribution due to Orthodontic Forces: A Finite Element Study

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:104 - 108]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1017  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This finite element study was conducted to calculate the distribution of stresses in the periodontal ligament when various orthodontic forces were applied, with emphasis on the effect on root apex.

Materials and methods

An in vitro finite element method was used to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of a maxillary central incisor, its periodontal ligament and alveolar bone was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology. To this model, five types of orthodontic forces namely tipping, bodily movement, intrusion, extrusion and rotations were applied at various points on the crown of the tooth model. After the application of the forces, initial stress and initial displacements of the periodontal ligament were evaluated. The principal stress obtained on the periodontal ligament due to various orthodontic loadings on the maxillary central incisor was analyzed using ANSYS 10 finite element software.

Results

It showed that the greatest amount of relative stress at the apex of maxillary central incisor occurred with intrusion, extrusion and rotation. Bodily movement and tipping forces produce stress concentrated at the alveolar crest and not at the root apex.

Conclusion

Clinical implications of this study suggest that if the clinician is concerned about placing heavy stresses on the root apex, then vertical and rotational forces must be applied with caution.

Clinical Significance

If heavy stresses are to be placed on the root apex, then vertical and rotational forces must be applied with caution during orthodontic therapy.

How to cite this article

Mathur AK, Gupta V, Sarmah A, Pai VS, Chandrashekar G. Apical Force Distribution due to Orthodontic Forces: A Finite Element Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):104-108.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Daphne Câmara Barcellos, Alessandra Buhler Borges, Regina Célia dos Santos Pinto Silva, Luciana Maria Ribeiro, Cesar Rogério Pucci, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres

pH-changes during Intracoronal Bleaching: An in vivo Study

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:109 - 113]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1018  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

This study aimed to measure pH changes during 14 days intracoronal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide/sodium perborate and carbamide peroxide/sodium perborate.

Materials and methods

Twenty patients presenting endodontically treated central maxillary incisors with color alterations were divided in two groups (n = 10): Group CP + SP: 37% carbamide peroxide + sodium perborate paste; Group HP + SP: 30% hydrogen peroxide + sodium perborate paste. The pH values were measured using a digital microprocessor at different times: Baseline, 2, 7 and 14 days. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (á = 0.05).

Results

ANOVA showed p < 0.00 which indicated significant difference between the groups. The mean values (± sd) and the results of the Tukey's test were: HP + SP/14 days—7.98 (±0.58)a; HP + SP/7 days—8.59 (±0.18)b; HP + SP/2 days— 8.83 (±0.32)bc; HP + SP/Baseline—8.83 (±0.01)bc; CP + SP/ Baseline—8.89 (±0.01)bc; CP + SP/14 days—9.11 (±0.58)cd; CP + SP/7 days—9.54 (±0.16)de; CP + SP/2 days—9.66 (±0.08) de. The group HP + SP resulted in significantly lower pH values compared with group CP + SP.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that both associations showed alkaline pH values; however, there was significant reduction in the pH values of the 30% hydrogen peroxide associated with sodium perborate after 14 days.

Clinical Significance

The association of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide with sodium perborate paste presented alkaline characteristics during the 14-day evaluated period. Thus, regarding pH changes, both associations can be considered safe as intracoronal bleaching agents.

How to cite this article

Barcellos DC, Borges AB, Silva RCDSP, Ribeiro LM, Pucci CR, Torres CRG. pH-changes during Intracoronal Bleaching: An in vivo Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):109-113.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah, Esmail Riahi

Serum and Saliva Levels of Cathepsin L in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:114 - 119]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1019  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death nearly all over the world, and accurate and rapid diagnosis of CAD is of major medical and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum and saliva levels of cathepsin L in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Materials and methods

In a cross-sectional study, 39 patients with ACS and 28 with controls were recruited to the study, and cathepsin L levels were measured in serum, resting saliva, and stimulated saliva obtained 12 and 24 h after the onset of ACS by ELISA method. Statistical analyses of Fisher's exact test, the Student's t-test or Kruskal-Wallis test were performed.

Results

Stimulated saliva cathepsin L levels in patients with ACS 12 hours but not 24 hours after admission showed significant decrease compared with that in control subjects. However, there were no significant differences in serum and unstimulted saliva cathepsin L levels between groups.

Conclusion

Serum and saliva levels of cathepsin L remain unchanged in patients with ACS and hence may not be a promising factor in CAD risk assessment.

Clinical significance

It seems that serum and saliva cathepsin L may not be a good biomarker for CHD.

Abbreviations

CAD: Coronary artery disease, ACS: Acute coronary syndrome, CHD: Coronary heart disease, EU: Emergency unit, MI: Myocardial infarction.

How to cite this article

Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Riahi E. Serum and Saliva Levels of Cathepsin L in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):114-119.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hamid Jafarzadeh, Christopher I Udoye, Emmanuel N Aguwa, Mehdi Habibi

Flare-up Incidence and Related Factors in Nigerian Adults

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:120 - 123]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1020  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To determine the incidence of flare-up and the effect of age, gender, visit type, treatment duration, preoperative pain and intraoperative pain on flare-up in Nigerian adults.

Materials and methods

A total of 175 participants, aged 18 to 60 years with a necrotic central incisor, with or without preoperative pain, participated. They received postoperative paracetamol tablets and were asked to report back if unbearable pain/swelling developed.

Results

A 10% flare-up rate was recorded, while none of the studied factors had a significant relationship with flare-up.

Conclusion

The relationships between flare-up and studied related factors were not proven.

Clinical significance

Age, gender, visit type, treatment duration, preoperative pain and intraoperative pain have no effect on flare-up incidence.

How to cite this article

Udoye CI, Jafarzadeh H, Aguwa EN, Habibi M. Flare-up Incidence and Related Factors in Nigerian Adults. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):120-123.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Adriana Cristina Zavanelli, Recardo Alexandre Zavanelli, Fabiana Rossi

Photoelastic Comparison of Single Tooth Implant-Abutment-Bone of Platform Switching vs Conventional Implant Designs

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:124 - 130]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1021  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

The maintenance and stability of peri-implantar soft tissue seem to be related to the crestal bone around the implant platform and different implant designs connections might affect this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate by photoelastic analysis the stress distribution in the cervical and apical site of implant-abutment interface of conventional implant joints (external hex, internal hex and cone morse) and compare to the novel platform switching design.

Materials and methods

It was fabricated photoelastic models using five different implant-abutment connection, one set of external hex (Alvim Ti, Neodent, Curitiba, Brazil), one set of internal hex (Full Osseotite, Biomet 3i, Florida, USA), one cone morse set (Alvim CM, Neodent, Curitiba, Brazil), and two sets of internal hex plus platform switching concept (Alvim II Plus, Neodent, Curitiba, Brazil) (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3i, Florida, USA). These models were submitted to two compressive loads, axial from 20 kgf (load I) and another (load II), inclined 45° from 10 kgf. During the qualitative analysis, digital pictures were taken from a polariscope, for each load situation. For the quantitative analyses in both situations of load, the medium, minimum and maximum in MPa values of shear strain were determined in the cervical and apical site. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the results between the different systems and between cervical and apical site were compared using Mann-Whitney U test.

Conclusion

The minor stress concentration strongly suggest the use of platform switching design as a manner to prevent bone loss around the implant-abutment platform.

Clinical Significance

From the result of this study its possible to make clinical decision for implant system which provides implant components with platform switching characteristics.

How to cite this article

Rossi F, Zavanelli AC, Zavanelli RA. Photoelastic Comparison of Single Tooth Implant-abutment- Bone of Platform Switching vs Conventional Implant Designs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):124-130.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vaishali Parekh, Chirag Taluja

Comparative Study of Periapical Radiographic Techniques with Apex Locator for Endodontic Working Length Estimation: An ex vivo Study

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:131 - 134]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1022  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Accurate assessment of working length determines the success and prognosis of an endodontic treatment outcome. Various methods are used in determining the working length.

Aim

Compare the measurements of the apex locator and radiographic technique to determine working length.

Methods

An ex vivo study was conducted on 20 patients having intact single straight root canal. Only premolars were taken in the study. After doing coronal flaring and irrigation, the radiographic length was determined with an aid of a k-type file and electronic length (EL-Root-ZX) 3rd generation apex locator. After extraction of all the premolars, stereomicroscope was further used to confirm and compare radiographic and electronic apex locator.

Results

A mean value of 0.5430 ± 0.5741 mm was observed among radiographic techniques. A mean value of 0.4240 ± 0.4587 mm was observed among apex locator techniques. Ttest revealed, no significant difference between the two techniques was observed (p = 0. 615). ‘Two tailed’ t-test revealed intragroup significance both techniques for determining the working length.

Conclusion

The distance of the apical foramen to the tip of the file: A mean value of 0.4240 ± 0.4587 mm with apex locator technique was observed. Working length of apex locator was more in comparison to radiographic technique. No significant difference between the two techniques was observed (p = 0. 615). Intragroup significance among both techniques for determining the working length was also observed. However, a further study incorporating a larger sample size and utilization of both techniques of working length determination on the same tooth has to be conducted.

Clinical significance

Combining the apex locator technique and radiographic technique for determination of working length would yield more accurate working length.

How to cite this article

Parekh V, Taluja C. Comparative Study of Periapical Radiographic Techniques with Apex Locator for Endodontic Working Length Estimation: An ex vivo Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):131-134.

CASE REPORT

Mohammed Saleem, Rayeesa Saleem, Rufus Allwyn Meshack

Prosthetic Management of Edentulous Mandible using Endosseous Implants and Overdentures

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:135 - 137]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1023  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical Significance

Implant retained fixed or removable prostheses are good treatment options in patients who have a compromised edentulous foundation.

How to cite this article

Saleem M, Saleem R, Meshack RA, Guru R. Prosthetic Management of Edentulous Mandible using Endosseous Implants and Overdentures. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):135-137.

CASE REPORT

Roberta Kochenborger Scarparo, Letícia Pereira, Diana Moro, Grasiela Gründling, Maximiliano Gomes, Fabiana Soares Grecca

Morphologic Variations of Maxillary Molars Palatal Root and the Importance of Its Knowledge for Endodontic Practice: A Case Series

[Year:2011] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:138 - 142]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1024  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The present report describes and discusses root canal variations in the internal morphology of maxillary molars.

Background

Dental internal anatomy is directly related to all the technical stages of the endodontic treatment. Even though, in some situations a typical anatomical characteristics can be faced, and the professional should be able to identify them.

Case descriptions

This clinical report describes five cases with different pulpar and periapical diagnostics where the endodontic treatment was performed, in which during the treatment the unusual occurrence of two or three canals in the palatal root ‘or even two distinct palatal roots’ of first and second maxillary molars, were described and important details for achieving treatment success were discussed.

Conclusion

The knowledge of tooth internal anatomy must be considered during clinical and radiographic examinations. This should be valued not only to find atypical canals but also to enable calcified canals cleaning and shaping, once they are frequently omitted during endodontic therapy.

Clinical significance

Anatomic variations can occur in any tooth, and palatal roots of maxillary first and second molars are no exception. The complexity of the root canal system and the importance of identifying its internal anatomy for planning endodontic treatment increase the chances of success.

How to cite this article

Scarparo RK, Pereira L, Moro D, Gründling G, Gomes M, Grecca FS. Morphologic Variations of Maxillary Molars Palatal Root and the Importance of Its Knowledge for Endodontic Practice: A Case Series. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):138-142.

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